The TDD Apostate by Mark Seemann
I've been doing Test-Driven Development since 2003. I still do, I still love it, and I still expect to be doing it in the future. Over the years, I've repeatedly returned to the discussion of whether TDD should be regarded as Test-Driven Development or Test-Driven Design. For a long time I've been of the conviction that TDD is both of those. Not so any longer.
TDD is not a good design methodology.
Over the years I've written tons of code with TDD. I've written code where tests blindly drove the design, and I've written code where the design was the result of a long period of deliberation, and the tests were only the manifestations of already well-formed ideas.
I can safely say that the code where tests alone drove the design never turned out particularly well. Although it was testable and, after a fashion, ‘loosely coupled', it was still Spaghetti Code in the sense that it lacked overall consistency and good abstractions.
On the other hand, I'm immensely pleased with code like AutoFixture 2.0, which was mostly the result of hours of careful contemplation riding my bike to and from work. It was still written test-first, but the design was well thought out in advance.
This made me think: did I just fail (repeatedly) at Test-Driven Design, or is the overall concept a fallacy?
That's a pretty hard question to answer; what constitutes good design? In the following, let's assume that the SOLID principles is a pretty good indicator of good design. If so, does test-first drive us towards SOLID design?
TDD versus the Single Responsibility Principle
Does TDD ensure the application of the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)? This question is easy to answer and the answer is a resounding NO! Nothing prevents us from test-driving a God Class. I've seen many examples, and I've been guilty of it myself.
Constructor Injection is a much better help because it makes SRP violations so painful.
The score so far: 0 points to TDD.
TDD versus the Open/Closed Principle
Does TDD ensure that we follow the Open/Closed Principle (OCP)? This is a bit harder to answer. I've previously argued that Testability is just another name for OCP, so that would in itself imply that TDD drives OCP. However, the issue is more complex than that, because there are several different ways we can address the OCP:
According to Roy Osherove's book The Art of Unit Testing, the Extract and Override technique is a common unit testing trick. Personally, I rarely use it, but if used it will indirectly drive us a bit towards OCP via inheritance.
However, we all know that we should favor composition over inheritance, so does TDD drive us in that direction? As I alluded to previously, TDD does tend to drive us towards the use of Test Doubles, which we can view as one way to achieve OCP via composition.
However, another favorite composition technique of mine is to add functionality with a Decorator. This is only possible if the original type implements an interface that can be decorated. It's possible to write a test that forces a SUT to implement an interface, but TDD as a technique in itself does not drive us in that direction.
Grudgingly, however, I most admit that TDD still scores half a point against OCP, for a total score so far of ½ point.
TDD versus the Liskov Substitution Principle
Does TDD drive us towards adhering to the Liskov Substitution Princple (LSP)? Perhaps, but probably not.
Black box testing can't protect us against the SUT attempting to downcast its dependencies, but at least it doesn't particularly pull us in that direction either. When it comes to the SUT's treatment of a dependency, TDD pulls in neither direction.
Can we test-drive interface implementations that inadvertently violate the LSP? Yes, easily. As I discussed in a previous post, the use of Header Interfaces pulls us towards LSP violations. The more members an interface has, the more likely are LSP violations.
TDD can definitely drive us towards Header Interfaces (although they tend to hurt in the long run). I've seen this happen numerous times, and I've been there myself. TDD doesn't properly encourage LSP adherence.
The score this round: 0 points for TDD, for a running total of ½ point.
TDD versus the Interface Segregation Principle
Does TDD drive us towards the Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)? No. It's pretty easy to test-drive a SUT towards a Header Interface, just as we can test-drive towards a God Class.
Another 0 points for TDD. The score is still ½ point to TDD.
TDD versus the Dependency Inversion Principle
Does TDD drive us towards the Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)? Yes, it does.
The whole drive towards Testability - the ability to replace dependencies with Test Doubles - drives us exactly in the same direction as the DIP.
Since we tend to mistake such mechanistic loose coupling with proper application design, this probably explains why we, for so long, have confused TDD with good design. However, although I view loose coupling as a prerequisite for good design, it is by no means enough.
For those that still keep score, TDD scores 1 point against DIP, for a total of 1½ points.
TDD does not ensure SOLID
With 1½ out of 5 possible points I have stated my case. I am convinced that TDD itself does not drive us towards SOLID design. It's definitely possible to use test-first techniques to drive towards SOLID designs, but that will always be an extra effort that supplements TDD; it's not something that is inherently built into TDD.
Obviously you could argue that SOLID in itself is not the end-all, be-all of proper API design. I would agree. However, based on my experience with TDD, I think the conclusion holds. TDD does not drive us towards good design. It is not a design technique.
I still write code test-first because I find it more productive, but I make design decisions out of band. I'm a Test-Driven Design Apostate.