Kent Beck's money TDD example has some interesting properties.

This article is part of a series about monoids. In short, a monoid is an associative binary operation with a neutral element (also known as identity).

In the first half of Test-Driven Development By Example Kent Beck explores how to develop a simple and flexible Money API using test-driven development. Towards the end, he arrives at a design that warrants further investigation.

Kent Beck's API

The following treatment of Kent Beck's code is based on Yawar Amin's C# reproduction of Kent Beck's original Java code, further forked and manipulated by me.

The goal of Kent Beck's exercise is to develop an object-oriented API able to handle money of multiple currencies, and for example be able to express operations such as 5 USD + 10 CHF. Towards the end of the example, he arrives at an interface that, translated to C#, looks like this:

public interface IExpression
    Money Reduce(Bank bank, string to);
    IExpression Plus(IExpression addend);
    IExpression Times(int multiplier);

The Reduce method reduces an IExpression object to a single currency (to), represented as a Money object. This is useful if you have an IExpression object that contains several currencies.

The Plus method adds another IExpression object to the current object, and returns a new IExpression. This could be money in a single currency, but could also represent money held in more than one currency.

The Times method multiplies an IExpression with a multiplier. You'll notice that, throughout this example code base, both multiplier and amounts are modelled as integers. I think that Kent Beck did this as a simplification, but a more realistic example should use decimal values.

The metaphor is that you can model money as one or more expressions. A simple expression would be 5 USD, but you could also have 5 USD + 10 CHF or 5 USD + 10 CHF + 10 USD. While you can reduce some expressions, such as 5 CHF + 7 CHF, you can't reduce an expression like 5 USD + 10 CHF unless you have an exchange rate. Instead of attempting to reduce monetary values, this particular design builds an expression tree until you decide to evaluate it. (Sounds familiar?)

Kent Beck implements IExpression twice:

  • Money models an amount in a single currency. It contains an Amount and a Currency read-only property. It's the quintessential Value Object.
  • Sum models the sum of two other IExpression objects. It contains two other IExpression objects, called Augend and Addend.
If you want to express 5 USD + 10 CHF, you can write:

IExpression sum = new Sum(Money.Dollar(5), Money.Franc(10));

where Money.Dollar and Money.Franc are two static factory methods that return Money values.


Did you notice that Plus is a binary operation? Could it be a monoid as well?

In order to be a monoid, it must obey the monoid laws, the first of which is that the operation must be associative. This means that for three IExpression objects, x, y, and z, x.Plus(y).Plus(z) must be equal to x.Plus(y.Plus(z)). How should you interpret equality here? The return value from Plus is another IExpression value, and interfaces don't have custom equality behaviour. Either, it's up to the individual implementations (Money and Sum) to override and implement equality, or you can use test-specific equality.

The assertion library supports test-specific equality via custom comparers (for more details, see my Advanced Unit Testing Pluralsight course). The original Money API does, however, already include a way to compare expressions!

The Reduce method can reduce any IExpression to a single Money object (that is, to a single currency), and since Money is a Value Object, it has structural equality. You can use this to compare the values of IExpression objects. All you need is an exchange rate.

In the book, Kent Beck uses a 2:1 exchange rate between CHF and USD. As I'm writing this, the exchange rate is 0.96 Swiss Franc to a Dollar, but since the example code consistently models money as integers, that rounds to a 1:1 exchange rate. This is, however, a degenerate case, so instead, I'm going to stick to the book's original 2:1 exchange rate.

You can now add an Adapter between Reduce and in the form of an IEqualityComparer<IExpression>:

public class ExpressionEqualityComparer : IEqualityComparer<IExpression>
    private readonly Bank bank;
    public ExpressionEqualityComparer()
        bank = new Bank();
        bank.AddRate("CHF""USD", 2);
    public bool Equals(IExpression x, IExpression y)
        var xm = bank.Reduce(x, "USD");
        var ym = bank.Reduce(y, "USD");
        return object.Equals(xm, ym);
    public int GetHashCode(IExpression obj)
        return bank.Reduce(obj, "USD").GetHashCode();

You'll notice that this custom equality comparer uses a Bank object with a 2:1 exchange rate. Bank is another object from the Test-Driven Development example. It doesn't implement any interface itself, but it does appear as an argument in the Reduce method.

In order to make your test code more readable, you can add a static helper class:

public static class Compare
    public static ExpressionEqualityComparer UsingBank =
        new ExpressionEqualityComparer();

This enables you to write an assertion for associativity like this:


In my fork of Yawar Amin's code base, I added this assertion to an FsCheck-based automated test, and it holds for all the Sum and Money objects that FsCheck generates.

In its present incarnation, IExpression.Plus is associative, but it's worth noting that this isn't guaranteed to last. An interface like IExpression is an extensibility point, so someone could easily add a third implementation that would violate associativity. We can tentatively conclude that Plus is currently associative, but that the situation is delicate.


If you accept that IExpression.Plus is associative, it's a monoid candidate. If an identity element exists, then it's a monoid.

Kent Beck never adds an identity element in his book, but you can add one yourself:

public static class Plus
    public readonly static IExpression Identity = new PlusIdentity();
    private class PlusIdentity : IExpression
        public IExpression Plus(IExpression addend)
            return addend;
        public Money Reduce(Bank bank, string to)
            return new Money(0, to);
        public IExpression Times(int multiplier)
            return this;

There's only a single identity element, so it makes sense to make it a Singleton. The private PlusIdentity class is a new IExpression implementation that deliberately doesn't do anything.

In Plus, it simply returns the input expression. This is the same behaviour as zero has for integer addition. When adding numbers together, zero is the identity element, and the same is the case here. This is more explicitly visible in the Reduce method, where the identity expression simply reduces to zero in the requested currency. Finally, if you multiply the identity element, you still get the identity element. Here, interestingly, PlusIdentity behaves similar to the identity element for multiplication (1).

You can now write the following assertions for any IExpression x:

Assert.Equal(x, x.Plus(Plus.Identity), Compare.UsingBank);
Assert.Equal(x, Plus.Identity.Plus(x), Compare.UsingBank);

Running this as a property-based test, it holds for all x generated by FsCheck. The same caution that applies to associativity also applies here: IExpression is an extensibility point, so you can't be sure that Plus.Identity will be the identity element for all IExpression implementations someone could create, but for the three implementations that now exist, the monoid laws hold.

IExpression.Plus is a monoid.


In basic arithmetic, the multiplication operator is called times. When you write 3 * 5, it literally means that you have 3 five times (or do you you have 5 three times?). In other words:

3 * 5 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3

Does a similar relationship exist for IExpression?

Perhaps, we can take a hint from Haskell, where monoids and semigroups are explicit parts of the core library. You're going to learn about semigroups later, but for now, it's interesting to observe that the Semigroup typeclass defines a function called stimes, which has the type Integral b => b -> a -> a. Basically, what this means that for any integer type (16-bit integer, 32-bit integer, etc.) stimes takes an integer and a value a and 'multiplies' the value. Here, a is a type for which a binary operation exists.

In C# syntax, stimes would look like this as an instance method on a Foo class:

public Foo Times(int multiplier)

I named the method Times instead of STimes, since I strongly suspect that the s in Haskell's stimes stands for Semigroup.

Notice how this is the same type of signature as IExpression.Times.

If it's possible to define a universal implementation of such a function in Haskell, could you do the same in C#? In Money, you can implement Times based on Plus:

public IExpression Times(int multiplier)
    return Enumerable
        .Repeat((IExpression)this, multiplier)
        .Aggregate((x, y) => x.Plus(y));

The static Repeat LINQ method returns this as many times as requested by multiplier. The return value is an IEnumerable<IExpression>, but according to the IExpression interface, Times must return a single IExpression value. You can use the Aggregate LINQ method to repeatedly combine two IExpression values (x and y) to one, using the Plus method.

This implementation is hardly as efficient as the previous, individual implementation, but the point here isn't about efficiency, but about a common, reusable abstraction. The exact same implementation can be used to implement Sum.Times:

public IExpression Times(int multiplier)
    return Enumerable
        .Repeat((IExpression)this, multiplier)
        .Aggregate((x, y) => x.Plus(y));

This is literally the same code as for Money.Times. You can also copy and paste this code to PlusIdentity.Times, but I'm not going to repeat it here, because it's the same code as above.

This means that you can remove the Times method from IExpression:

public interface IExpression
    Money Reduce(Bank bank, string to);
    IExpression Plus(IExpression addend);

Instead, you can implement it as an extension method:

public static class Expression
    public static IExpression Times(this IExpression exp, int multiplier)
        return Enumerable
            .Repeat(exp, multiplier)
            .Aggregate((x, y) => x.Plus(y));

This works because any IExpression object has a Plus method.

As I've already admitted, this is likely to be less efficient than specialised implementations of Times. In Haskell, this is addressed by making stimes part of the typeclass, so that implementers can implement a more efficient algorithm than the default implementation. In C#, the same effect could be achieved by refactoring IExpression to an abstract base class, with Times as a public virtual (overridable) method.

Haskell sanity check

Since Haskell has a more formal definition of a monoid, you may want to try to port Kent Beck's API to Haskell, as a proof of concept. In its final modification, my C# fork has three implementations of IExpression:

  • Money
  • Sum
  • PlusIdentity
While interfaces are extensible, we were rightfully uneasy about this, so in Haskell, it seems safer to model these three subtypes as a sum type:

data Expression = Money { amount :: Int, currency :: String }
                | Sum { augend :: Expression, addend :: Expression }
                | MoneyIdentity
                deriving (Show)

You can formally make this a Monoid:

instance Monoid Expression where
  mempty = MoneyIdentity
  mappend MoneyIdentity y = y
  mappend x MoneyIdentity = x
  mappend x y             = Sum x y

The C# Plus method is here implemented by the mappend function. The only remaining member of IExpression is Reduce, which you can implement like this:

import Data.Map.Strict (Map(!))

reduce :: Ord a => Map (String, a) Int -> a -> Expression -> Int
reduce bank to (Money amt cur) = amt `div` rate
  where rate = bank ! (cur, to)
reduce bank to (Sum x y) = reduce bank to x + reduce bank to y
reduce _ _ MoneyIdentity = 0

Haskell's typeclass mechanism takes care of the rest, so that, for example, you can reproduce one of Kent Beck's original tests like this:

λ> let bank = fromList [(("CHF","USD"),2), (("USD", "USD"),1)]
λ> let sum = stimesMonoid 2 $ MoneyPort.Sum (Money 5 "USD") (Money 10 "CHF")
λ> reduce bank "USD" sum

Just like stimes works for any Semigroup, stimesMonoid is defined for any Monoid, and therefore you can also use it with Expression.

With the historical 2:1 exchange rate, 5 Dollars + 10 Swiss Franc, times 2, is equivalent to 20 Dollars.


In chapter 17 of his book, Kent Beck describes that he'd been TDD'ing a Money API many times before trying out the expression-based API he ultimately used in the book. In other words, he had much experience, both with this particular problem, and with programming in general. Clearly this is a highly skilled programmer at work.

I find it interesting that he seems to intuitively arrive at a design involving a monoid and an interpreter. If he did this on purpose, he doesn't say so in the book, so I rather speculate that he arrived at the design simply because he recognised its superiority. This is the reason that I find it interesting to identify this, an existing example, as a monoid, because it indicates that there's something supremely comprehensible about monoid-based APIs. It's conceptually 'just like addition'.

In this article, we returned to a decade-old code example in order to identify it as a monoid. In the next article, I'm going to revisit an example code base of mine from 2015.

Next: Convex hull monoid.


You'll notice that, throughout this example code base, both multiplier and amounts are modelled as integers. I think that Kent Beck did this as a simplification, but a more realistic example should use decimal values.

Actually, in a lot of financial systems money is stored in cents, and therefore as integers, because it avoids rounding errors.

Great articles btw! :)

2017-10-20 7:09 UTC

Hrvoje, thank you for writing. Yes, it's a good point that you could model the values as cents and rappen, but I think I recall that Kent Beck's text distinctly discusses dollars and francs. I am, however, currently travelling, without access to the book, so I can't check.

The scenario, as simplistic as it may be, involves currency exchange, and exchange rates tend to involve much smaller fractions. As an example, right now, one currency exchange web site reports that 1 CHF is 1.01950 USD. Clearly, representing the U.S. currency with cents would incur a loss of precision, because that would imply an exchange rate of 102 cents to 100 rappen. I'm sure arbitrage opportunities would be legion if you ever wrote code like that.

If I remember number theory correctly, you can always scale any rational number to an integer. I.e. in this case, you could scale 1.01950 to 101,950. There's little reason to do that, because you have the decimal struct for that purpose:

"The Decimal value type is appropriate for financial calculations that require large numbers of significant integral and fractional digits and no round-off errors."
All of this, however, is just idle speculation on my point. I admit that I've never had to implement complex financial calculations, so there may be some edge cases of which I'm not aware. For all the run-of-the-mill eCommerce and payment solutions I've implemented over the years, decimal has always been more than adequate.

2017-10-20 8:14 UTC

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Monday, 16 October 2017 07:28:00 UTC


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