A introduction to the Maybe functor for object-oriented programmers.

This article is an instalment in an article series about functors.

One of the simplest, and easiest to understand, functors is Maybe. It's also sometimes known as the Maybe monad, but this is not a monad tutorial; it's a functor tutorial. Maybe is many things; one of them is a functor. In F#, Maybe is called option.


Maybe enables you to model a value that may or may not be present. Object-oriented programmers typically have a hard time grasping the significance of Maybe, since it essentially does the same as null in mainstream object-oriented languages. There are differences, however. In languages like C# and Java, most things can be null, which can lead to much defensive coding. What happens more frequently, though, is that programmers forget to check for null, with run-time exceptions as the result.

A Maybe value, on the other hand, makes it explicit that a value may or may not be present. In statically typed languages, it also forces you to deal with the case where no data is present; if you don't, your code will not compile.

Finally, in a language like C#, null has no type, but a Maybe value always has a type.

If you appreciate the tenet that explicit is better than implicit, then you should favour Maybe over null.


If you've read the introduction, then you know that IEnumerable<T> is a functor. In many ways, Maybe is like IEnumerable<T>, but it's a particular type of collection that can only contain zero or one element(s). There are various ways in which you can implement Maybe in an object-oriented language like C#; here's one:

public sealed class Maybe<T>
    internal bool HasItem { get; }
    internal T Item { get; }
    public Maybe()
        this.HasItem = false;
    public Maybe(T item)
        if (item == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(item));
        this.HasItem = true;
        this.Item = item;
    public Maybe<TResult> Select<TResult>(Func<TTResult> selector)
        if (selector == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(selector));
        if (this.HasItem)
            return new Maybe<TResult>(selector(this.Item));
            return new Maybe<TResult>();
    public T GetValueOrFallback(T fallbackValue)
        if (fallbackValue == null)
            throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(fallbackValue));
        if (this.HasItem)
            return this.Item;
            return fallbackValue;
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
        var other = obj as Maybe<T>;
        if (other == null)
            return false;
        return object.Equals(this.Item, other.Item);
    public override int GetHashCode()
        return this.HasItem ? this.Item.GetHashCode() : 0;

This is a generic class with two constructors. The parameterless constructor indicates the case where no value is present, whereas the other constructor overload indicates the case where exactly one value is available. Notice that a guard clause prevents you from accidentally passing null as a value.

The Select method has the correct signature for a functor. If a value is present, it uses the selector method argument to map item to a new value, and return a new Maybe<TResult> value. If no value is available, then a new empty Maybe<TResult> value is returned.

This class also override Equals. This isn't necessary in order for it to be a functor, but it makes it easier to compare two Maybe<T> values.

A common question about such generic containers is: how do you get the value out of the container?

The answer depends on the particular container, but in this example, I decided to enable that functionality with the GetValueOrFallback method. The only way to get the item out of a Maybe value is by supplying a fall-back value that can be used if no value is available. This is one way to guarantee that you, as a client developer, always remember to deal with the empty case.


It's easy to use this Maybe class:

var source = new Maybe<int>(42);

This creates a new Maybe<int> object that contains the value 42. If you need to change the value inside the object, you can, for example, do this:

Maybe<string> dest = source.Select(x => x.ToString());

Since C# natively understands functors through its query syntax, you could also have written the above translation like this:

Maybe<string> dest = from x in source
                     select x.ToString();

It's up to you and your collaborators whether you prefer one or the other of those alternatives. In both examples, though, dest is a new populated Maybe<string> object containing the string "42".

A more realistic example could be as part of a line-of-business application. Many enterprise developers are familiar with the Repository pattern. Imagine that you'd like to query a repository for a Reservation object. If one is found in the database, you'd like to convert it to a view model, so that you can display it.

var viewModel = repository.Read(id)
    .Select(r => r.ToViewModel())

The repository's Read method returns Maybe<Reservation>, indicating that it's possible that no object is returned. This will happen if you're querying the repository for an id that doesn't exist in the underlying database.

While you can translate the (potential) Reservation object to a view model (using the ToViewModel extension method), you'll have to supply a default view model to handle the case when the reservation wasn't found.

ReservationViewModel.Null is a static read-only class field implementing the Null Object pattern. Here, it's used for the fall-back value, in case no object was returned from the repository.

Notice that while you need a fall-back value at the end of your fluent interface pipeline, you don't need fall-back values for any intermediate steps. Specifically, you don't need a Null Object implementation for your domain model (Reservation). Furthermore, no defensive coding is required, because Maybe<T> guarantees that the object passed to selector is never null.

First functor law

A Select method with the right signature isn't enough to be a functor. It must also obey the functor laws. Maybe obeys both laws, which you can demonstrate with a few examples. Here's some test cases for a populated Maybe:

public void PopulatedMaybeObeysFirstFunctorLaw(string value)
    Func<stringstring> id = x => x;
    var m = new Maybe<string>(value);
    Assert.Equal(m, m.Select(id));

This parametrised unit test uses xUnit.net to demonstrate that a populated Maybe value doesn't change when translated with the local id function, since id returns the input unchanged.

The first functor law holds for an empty Maybe as well:

public void EmptyMaybeObeysFirstFunctorLaw()
    Func<stringstring> id = x => x;
    var m = new Maybe<string>();
    Assert.Equal(m, m.Select(id));

When a Maybe starts empty, translating it with id doesn't change that it's empty. It's worth noting, however, that the original and the translated objects are considered equal because Maybe<T> overrides Equals. Even in the case of the empty Maybe, the value returned by Select(id) is a new object, with a memory address different from the original value.

Second functor law

You can also demonstrate the second functor law with some examples, starting with some test cases for the populated case:

public void PopulatedMaybeObeysSecondFunctorLaw(string value, bool expected)
    Func<stringint> g = s => s.Length;
    Func<intbool>   f = i => i % 2 == 0;
    var m = new Maybe<string>(value);
    Assert.Equal(m.Select(g).Select(f), m.Select(s => f(g(s))));

In this parametrised test, f and g are two local functions. g returns the length of a string (for example, the length of antidisestablishmentarianism is 28). f evaluates whether or not a number is even.

Whether you decide to first translate m with g, and then translate the return value with f, or you decide to translate the composition of those functions in a single Select method call, the result should be the same.

The second functor law holds for the empty case as well:

public void EmptyMaybeObeysSecondFunctorLaw()
    Func<stringint> g = s => s.Length;
    Func<intbool>   f = i => i % 2 == 0;
    var m = new Maybe<string>();
    Assert.Equal(m.Select(g).Select(f), m.Select(s => f(g(s))));

Since m is empty, applying the translations doesn't change that fact - it only changes the type of the resulting object, which is an empty Maybe<bool>.


In Haskell, Maybe is built in. You can create a Maybe value containing an integer like this (the type annotations are optional):

source :: Maybe Int
source = Just 42

Mapping source to a String can be done like this:

dest :: Maybe String
dest = fmap show source

The function fmap corresponds to the above C# Select method.

It's also possible to use infix notation:

dest :: Maybe String
dest = show <$> source

The <$> operator is an alias for fmap.

Whether you use fmap or <$>, the resulting dest value is Just "42".

If you want to create an empty Maybe value, you use the Nothing data constructor.


Maybe is also a built-in type in F#, but here it's called option instead of Maybe. You create an option containing an integer like this:

// int option
let source = Some 42

While the case where a value is present was denoted with Just in Haskell, in F# it's called Some.

You can translate option values using the map function from the Option module:

// string option
let dest = source |> Option.map string

Finally, if you want to create an empty option value, you can use the None case constructor.


Together with a functor called Either, Maybe is one of the workhorses of statically typed functional programming. You aren't going to write much F# or Haskell before you run into it. In C# I've used variations of the above Maybe<T> class for years, with much success.

In this article, I only discussed Maybe in its role of being a functor, but it's so much more than that! It's also an applicative functor, a monad, and traversable (enumerable). Not all functors are that rich.

Next: Tree.

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Monday, 26 March 2018 05:19:00 UTC


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