The Constructor Injection design pattern is a extremely useful way to implement loose coupling. It's easy to understand and implement, but sometime perhaps a bit misunderstood.

The pattern itself is easily described through an example:

private readonly ISpecimenBuilder builder;
public SpecimenContext(ISpecimenBuilder builder)
    if (builder == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("builder");
    this.builder = builder;

The SpecimenContext constructor statically declares that it requires an ISpecimenBuilder instance as an argument. To guarantee that the builder field is an invariant of the class, the constructor contains a Guard Clause before it assigns the builder parameter to the builder field. This pattern can be repeated for each constructor argument.

It's important to understand that when using Constructor Injection the constructor should contain no additional logic.

An Injection Constructor should do no more than receiving the dependencies.

This is simply a rephrasing of Nikola Malovic's 4th law of IoC. There are several reasons for this rule of thumb:

  • When we compose applications with Constructor Injection we often create substantial object graphs, and we want to be able to create these graphs as efficiently as possible. This is Nikola's original argument.
  • In the odd (and not recommended) cases where you have circular dependencies, the injected dependencies may not yet be fully initialized, so an attempt to invoke their members at that time may result in an exception. This issue is similar to the issue of invoking virtual members from the constructor. Conceptually, an injected dependency is equivalent to a virtual member.
  • With Constructor Injection, the constructor's responsibility is to demand and receive the dependencies. Thus, according to the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP), it should not try to do something else as well. Some readers might argue that I'm misusing the SRP here, but I think I'm simply applying the underlying principle in a more granular context.

There's no reason to feel constrained by this rule, as in any case the constructor is an implementation detail. In loosely coupled code, the constructor is not part of the overall application API. When we consider the API at that level, we are still free to design the API as we'd like.

Please notice that this rule is contextual: it applies to Services that use Constructor Injection. Entities and Value Objects tend not to use DI, so their constructors are covered by other rules.


Nice post, sometimes I find useful to have an IInitializable interface and instruct the container to call the initialize method after instantiation. What you thing about this?
2011-03-03 15:01 UTC
That's very rarely a good idea. The problem with an Initialize method is the same as with Property Injection (A.K.A. Setter Injection): it creates a temporal coupling between the Initialize method and all other members of the class. Unless you truly can invoke any other member of the class without first invoking the Initialize method, such API design is deceitful and will lead to run-time exceptions. It also becomes much harder to ensure that the object is always in a consistent state.

Constructor Injection is a far superior pattern because is enforces that required dependencies will be present. Property Injection on the other hand implies that the dependency is optional, which is rarely the case.
2011-03-03 16:04 UTC
What about wiring events in the constructor? For example: = foo; += HandleSomeEvent;
2011-03-03 19:28 UTC
When you look at what happens on the IL level, subscribing to an event is just another method call, so the same arguments as above still apply.

Keep in mind, however, that the above constitutes a guideline. It's not an absolute truth. I rarely use events, but it happens from time to time, and I can think of at least one case where I've done just what you suggest. I also occasionally break the above rule in other ways, but I always pause and consider the implications and whether there's a better alternative - often there is.
2011-03-03 19:50 UTC

Wish to comment?

You can add a comment to this post by sending me a pull request. Alternatively, you can discuss this post on Twitter or somewhere else with a permalink. Ping me with the link, and I may respond.


Thursday, 03 March 2011 14:18:54 UTC


"Our team wholeheartedly endorses Mark. His expert service provides tremendous value."
Hire me!
Published: Thursday, 03 March 2011 14:18:54 UTC