# ploeh blog danish software design

## The Lazy monad

*Lazy computations form a monad. An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads. A previous article described how lazy computations form a functor. In this article, you'll see that lazy computations also form a monad.

### SelectMany #

A monad must define either a *bind* or *join* function. In C#, monadic bind is called `SelectMany`

. You can define one as an extension method on the Lazy<T> class:

public static Lazy<TResult> SelectMany<T, TResult>( this Lazy<T> source, Func<T, Lazy<TResult>> selector) { return new Lazy<TResult>(() => selector(source.Value).Value); }

While the implementation seemingly forces evaluation by accessing the `Value`

property, this all happens inside a lambda expression that defers execution.

If `x`

is a `Lazy<int>`

and `SlowToString`

is a function that takes an `int`

as input and returns a `Lazy<string>`

you can compose them like this:

Lazy<string> y = x.SelectMany(SlowToString);

The result is another lazy computation that, when forced, will produce a `string`

.

### Query syntax #

Monads also enable query syntax in C# (just like they enable other kinds of syntactic sugar in languages like F# and Haskell). As outlined in the monad introduction, however, you must add a special `SelectMany`

overload:

public static Lazy<TResult> SelectMany<T, U, TResult>( this Lazy<T> source, Func<T, Lazy<U>> k, Func<T, U, TResult> s) { return source.SelectMany(x => k(x).Select(y => s(x, y))); }

This would enable you to rewrite the above example like this:

Lazy<string> y = from i in x from s in SlowToString(i) select s;

The behaviour is the same as above. It's just two different ways of writing the same expression. The C# compiler desugars the query-syntax expression to one that composes with `SelectMany`

.

### Flatten #

In the introduction you learned that if you have a `Flatten`

or `Join`

function, you can implement `SelectMany`

, and the other way around. Since we've already defined `SelectMany`

for `Lazy<T>`

, we can use that to implement `Flatten`

. In this article I use the name `Flatten`

rather than `Join`

. This is an arbitrary choice that doesn't impact behaviour. Perhaps you find it confusing that I'm inconsistent, but I do it in order to demonstrate that the behaviour is the same even if the name is different.

The concept of a monad is universal, but the names used to describe its components differ from language to language. What C# calls `SelectMany`

, Scala calls `flatMap`

, and what Haskell calls `join`

, other languages may call `Flatten`

.

You can always implement `Flatten`

by using `SelectMany`

with the identity function.

public static Lazy<T> Flatten<T>(this Lazy<Lazy<T>> source) { return source.SelectMany(x => x); }

You could also compose the above `x`

and `SlowToString`

with `Select`

and `Flatten`

, like this:

Lazy<Lazy<string>> nested = x.Select(SlowToString); Lazy<string> flattened = nested.Flatten();

The `flattened`

value remains deferred until you force execution.

### Return #

Apart from monadic bind, a monad must also define a way to put a normal value into the monad. Conceptually, I call this function *return* (because that's the name that Haskell uses). You don't, however, have to define a static method called `Return`

. What's of importance is that the capability exists. For `Lazy<T>`

in C# the idiomatic way would be to use a constructor, but the version of .NET I'm using for this code (this is actually code I wrote years ago) doesn't have such a constructor (newer versions do). Instead, I'll define a function:

public static Lazy<T> Return<T>(T x) { return new Lazy<T>(() => x); }

In other words, `Return`

wraps a pre-existing value in a lazy computation.

### Left identity #

We need to identify the *return* function in order to examine the monad laws. Now that this is done, let's see what the laws look like for the Lazy monad, starting with the left identity law.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void LazyHasLeftIdentity(Func<int, string> h_, int a) { Func<int, Lazy<int>> @return = Lazy.Return; Lazy<string> h(int x) => Lazy.Return(h_(x)); Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h).Value, h(a).Value); }

Like in the previous article the test uses FsCheck 2.11.0 and xUnit.net 2.4.0. FScheck can generate arbitrary functions in addition to arbitrary values, but it unfortunately, it can't generate lazy computations. Instead, I've asked FsCheck to generate a function that I then convert to a lazy computation.

In order to compare the values, the assertion has to force evaluation by reading the `Value`

properties.

### Right identity #

In a similar manner, we can showcase the right identity law as a test.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void LazyHasRightIdentity(Func<string, int> f_, string a) { Func<string, Lazy<int>> f = x => Lazy.Return(f_(x)); Func<int, Lazy<int>> @return = Lazy.Return; Lazy<int> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return).Value, m.Value); }

As always, even a property-based test constitutes no *proof* that the law holds. I show it only to illustrate what the laws look like in 'real' code.

### Associativity #

The last monad law is the associativity law that describes how (at least) three functions compose.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void LazyIsAssociative( Func<int, string> f_, Func<string, byte> g_, Func<byte, TimeSpan> h_, int a) { Lazy<string> f(int x) => Lazy.Return(f_(x)); Lazy<byte> g(string x) => Lazy.Return(g_(x)); Lazy<TimeSpan> h(byte x) => Lazy.Return(h_(x)); Lazy<string> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h).Value, m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h)).Value); }

This property once more relies on FsCheck's ability to generate arbitrary pure functions, which it then converts to lazy computations.

### Conclusion #

The Lazy functor (which is also an applicative functor) is also a monad. This can be used to combine multiple lazily computed values into a single lazily computed value.

**Next:** Asynchronous monads.

## Waiting to never happen

*An example of how non-deterministic code can cause test cases to wither.*

It seems to me that when people discuss functional programming, they spend much time discussing side effects and how to avoid them. Sometimes, they almost forget that non-deterministic behaviour is also something to avoid.

On the other hand, we've known for a long time that we should eradicate non-determinism in tests. Martin Fowler's article, however, mostly discusses false positives: Tests that fail even when no defect is manifest.

Unit tests may also exhibit false negatives. This can happen for a variety of reason. In my article Tautological assertion I describe one example.

The passing of time, however, has a tendency to introduce decay. This may apply to test suites as well. If a test or the System Under Test depends on the current time, a test may over time transition from a proper test to one that still passes, but for the wrong reason.

### A test example #

I was recently looking at this test:

[Fact] public async Task ChangeDateToSoldOutDate() { var r1 = Some.Reservation; var r2 = Some.Reservation .WithId(Guid.NewGuid()) .TheDayAfter() .WithQuantity(10); var db = new FakeDatabase(); db.Grandfather.Add(r1); db.Grandfather.Add(r2); var sut = new ReservationsController( new SystemClock(), new InMemoryRestaurantDatabase(Grandfather.Restaurant), db); var dto = r1.WithDate(r2.At).ToDto(); var actual = await sut.Put(r1.Id.ToString("N"), dto); var oRes = Assert.IsAssignableFrom<ObjectResult>(actual); Assert.Equal( StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError, oRes.StatusCode); }

It's from the code base that accompanies my book Code That Fits in Your Head. It's a false negative waiting to happen. What's the problem?

Before I start describing the problem, I think that I owe you a short explanation of what you're looking at. The book has a single example code base that it uses to showcase various heuristics and techniques. The code base implements an online restaurant reservation REST API. I've previously discussed that code base on this blog.

This particular test exercises the following test case: A client can use the REST API to change an existing reservation. When it does that, the API should check that all business rules apply. Particularly, in this case, if you have an existing reservation (`r1`

), but try to change it to another date, and that other date is already sold out, the update should be refused.

The test uses backdoor manipulation to establish the initial state. It's a state-based integration test that uses an in-memory Fake database. It adds two reservations (`r1`

and `r2`

) to the database, on two different days.

What's not at all clear from the above code is that that `10`

is the `Grandfather.Restaurant`

's maximum capacity. (This is a fair criticism against this test, but not what this article is about.) It effectively means that the restaurant is sold out that day.

The test then, in the act phase, tries to change `r1`

to the date that's sold out and `Put`

that change.

The assertion checks that this isn't possible.

### A false negative waiting to happen #

What's the problem with the above test?

The problem is that *when I wrote it*, it exercised the above test case, but now it no longer does.

At this point, you're probably wondering. The test case is supposed to change the date of `r1`

to the date of `r2`

, but no dates are visible in the test. Which dates does the test use?

The answer may be found in the `Some`

class:

public readonly static Reservation Reservation = new Reservation( new Guid(0x81416928, 0xC236, 0x4EBF, 0xA4, 0x50, 0x24, 0x95, 0xA4, 0xDA, 0x92, 0x30), Now, new Email("x@example.net"), new Name(""), 1);

`Some.Reservation`

is an immutable test datum. It's intended to be used as a representative example of a `Reservation`

value. The reservation date and time (the `At`

property) is another immutable test datum:

public readonly static DateTime Now = new DateTime(2022, 4, 1, 20, 15, 0);

I wrote most of that code base in 2020. April 1st 2022 seemed far in the future, and I needed a value that could represent 'approximately' the current time. It didn't have to be the day the code would run, but (as it turns out) it's important that this date isn't in the past. Which it now is.

What happens now that `Some.Reservation`

is in the past?

Nothing, and that's exactly what is the problem.

### A new path #

Once the clock rolled over from 2022-04-02 20:14:59 to 2022-04-02 20:15:00, the pathway through the code changed. Why April 2 and not April 1? Because the date of importance in the test is `TheDayAfter`

, and `TheDayAfter`

is defined like this:

public static Reservation TheDayAfter(this Reservation reservation) { return reservation.AddDate(TimeSpan.FromDays(1)); }

So `r2.At`

is 20:15 April 2, 2022.

Before 2022-04-02 20:15:00 the test would exercise the test case it was supposed to. After all, I did write the test *before* I wrote the implementation, and I did see it fail before I saw it pass.

Once, however, `dto`

is in the past, another pathway takes over. The Maître d's core decision logic (WillAccept) contains this Guard Clause:

if (candidate.At < now) return false;

Long before the domain model investigates whether it can accommodate a reservation, it rejects all reservations in the past. The calling code, however, only sees that the return value is `false`

. In other words, the externally observable behaviour is the same. This also means that test's assertion still passes. From the outside, you can't tell the difference.

### Coverage decay #

If the behaviour is stable, then why is this a problem?

This is a problem because this decreases test coverage. While code coverage is a useless target measure, it's not a completely useless metric. The absolute percentage is less relevant than the trend. If code coverage decreases, one should at least investigate.

Here, specifically, it means that I thought I had a particular test case covered, and in reality it turns out that that's no longer the case. Now the test just verifies that you can't update past reservations, regardless of application state. Other tests already verify that, however, so this test now became redundant.

As I've described before, each test case exercises a particular path through the System Under Test:

If you have high code coverage, an aggregate diagram might look like this:

Notice that the top box now says *Unit tests* in plural. Together, the tests exercise most pathways through the code. There's one pathway not exercised: The path from the light blue node to the orange node. The point is that this diagram illustrates *high* code coverage, not complete code coverage. The following argument applies to that general situation.

What happened with the above test is that coverage *decayed*.

In this figure, the green pathway is no longer exercised.

Not only did coverage decrease: Unless you're monitoring code coverage, you probably didn't notice. The code didn't change. Time just passed.

### Threat to refactoring #

Why is this a problem? After all, code coverage isn't a goal; it's just a measure.

As Martin Fowler writes:

"to refactor, the essential precondition is [...] solid tests"

A good test suite verifies that the behaviour of your software doesn't change as you reorganise the code. The underlying assumption is that the test suite exercises important use cases and protects against regressions.

The above test is an example of a test case that silently disappears. If you think that your tests cover all important use cases, you may feel confident refactoring. After all, if all tests pass, you didn't break any existing behaviour.

Unbeknownst to you, however, the test suite may become less trustworthy. As time passes, test cases may disappear, as exemplified by the above test. While the test suite may be passing, a refactoring could introduce a regression - of behaviour you believed to be already covered.

### Under the radar #

Why didn't I catch this earlier? After all, I'd already identified the problem in the code base. Once I realised the problem, I took steps to remedy it. I loaded the code base on a spare computer and changed the machine's year to a future year (2038, if I recall correctly). Then I ran the tests to see which ones failed.

I examined each failing test to verify that it actually failed because of the time and date. Then I corrected the test to make it relative to the system clock.

That took care of all the tests that would eventually break. On the other hand, it didn't unearth any of the tests that over time silently would become false negatives.

### Make it relative #

Fixing the above test was easy:

[Fact] public async Task ChangeDateToSoldOutDate() { var r1 = Some.Reservation.WithDate(DateTime.Now.AddDays(8).At(20, 15)); var r2 = r1 .WithId(Guid.NewGuid()) .TheDayAfter() .WithQuantity(10); var db = new FakeDatabase(); db.Grandfather.Add(r1); db.Grandfather.Add(r2); var sut = new ReservationsController( new SystemClock(), new InMemoryRestaurantDatabase(Grandfather.Restaurant), db); var dto = r1.WithDate(r2.At).ToDto(); var actual = await sut.Put(r1.Id.ToString("N"), dto); var oRes = Assert.IsAssignableFrom<ObjectResult>(actual); Assert.Equal( StatusCodes.Status500InternalServerError, oRes.StatusCode); }

The only change is to the creation of `r1`

and `r2`

. The test now explicitly sets the `r1`

date eight days in the future. It also derives `r2`

from `r1`

, which makes the relationship between the two values more explicit. This in itself is a small improvement, I think.

### Deterministic behaviour #

More than one person has told me that I obsess over details to a degree that can't be expected of most developers. If that's true, problems like this are likely to go unnoticed. After all, I discovered the problem because I was carefully reviewing each test more than a year after I originally wrote it. While I had a reason to do that, we can't expect developers to do that.

Are we doomed to suffer this kind of error, then? I don't have a silver bullet for you, but I don't think that all is lost. A little discipline may help. As I write in Code That Fits in Your Head, pair programming or code reviews can help raise awareness of issues.

On the tactical level, you might want to consider a policy that discourages absolute dates and times in unit tests.

On the strategic level, you may want to adopt the Functional Core, Imperative Shell architecture. After all, pure functions are intrinsically testable.

As I wrote in the beginning of this article, most people tend to focus on how to avoid side effects when discussing functional programming. A pure function, however, must be *both* side-effect-free and deterministic.

This means that instead of learning many specific rules (such as not using absolute time in unit tests), you may focus on one general rule: Write and test pure functions.

To be honest, though, this rule doesn't solve all problems. Even in a functional-core-imperative-shell architecture, the imperative shell isn't pure. The above integration test is, unfortunately, a test of the imperative shell. It's already using the `SystemClock`

, and that's no oversight on my part. While I do favour the test pyramid, I also write integration tests - just as the test pyramid encourages me to do. I find it valuable that integration tests integrate as many components as possible. The more real components an integration test uses, the better the chance that it uncovers problems.

With integration tests, then, diligence is required to keep tests deterministic. In that context you can't rely on a universal rule like *just write pure functions*, because at the boundaries, programs aren't functional. Instead, some diligence and discipline is required. At least, I don't see other alternatives, but perhaps you do?

### Conclusion #

If you use absolute dates in unit tests, what was once a future date may some day become a past date. This can change which pathways of the System Under Test an automated test exercises.

Is this important? It's probably not the most pressing problem you may run into. Even if test coverage silently decays, it may not be a problem if you never refactor the code in question. It's only if, during a refactoring, you introduce a defect that goes unnoticed that this may become a problem. It doesn't seem like the most likely of errors, but on the other hand, these kinds of unexpected problems have a tendency to occur at the most inopportune moments.

## The Identity monad

*Probably one of the least useful monads. An article for object-oriented developers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

The Identity functor is another example of a functor that also forms a monad. Contrary to useful monads like list, Maybe, and Either, the Identity monad isn't particularly useful. In Haskell it serves a few niche positions, for example when it comes to monad transformers. It's possible to define abstractions at a higher level in Haskell than it is in many other languages. Some of those abstractions involve monads. The Identity monad can plug into these abstractions as a 'do-nothing' monad, a bit like the Null Object pattern can supply a 'do-nothing' implementation of an interface.

Other languages with which I'm proficient (C#, F#) don't enable that kind of abstraction, and I've never felt the need to actually *use* the Identity monad in those languages. Still, the Identity monad exists mathematically and conceptually, and it can be useful to know of that existence. This implies, like the Null Object pattern, that some abstractions can be simplified by 'plugging in' the Identity monad. The alternative would have had to involve some hand-waving about special cases.

The code in this article continues the implementation shown in the article about the Identity functor.

### SelectMany #

A monad must define either a *bind* or *join* function. In C#, monadic bind is called `SelectMany`

. For `Identity<T>`

the implementation is trivial:

public Identity<TResult> SelectMany<TResult>(Func<T, Identity<TResult>> selector) { return selector(Item); }

This is an instance method on `Identity<T>`

, which means that the `Item`

property has the type `T`

. Since the `selector`

return a new `Identity<TResult>`

, the method can simply return that value.

### Query syntax #

As usual, you can implement C# query syntax with a boilerplate overload of `SelectMany`

:

public Identity<TResult> SelectMany<U, TResult>( Func<T, Identity<U>> k, Func<T, U, TResult> s) { return SelectMany(x => k(x).Select(y => s(x, y))); }

The implementation is the same as in the previous articles in this article series. If it looks a little different than, say, the implementation for the Maybe monad, it's only because this `SelectMany`

overload is an instance method, whereas the Maybe implementation is an extension method.

Query syntax enables syntactic sugar like this:

Identity<int> i = from x in new Identity<int>(39) from y in new Identity<string>("foo") select x + y.Length;

The C# compiler infers that `x`

is an `int`

and `y`

is a `string`

.

### Flatten #

As the monad introduction also points out, if you have monadic bind (`SelectMany`

) you can always implement a function to flatten a nested functor. This function is sometimes called *join* and sometimes (perhaps more intuitively) *flatten*. Here I've chosen to call it `Flatten`

:

public static Identity<T> Flatten<T>(this Identity<Identity<T>> source) { return source.SelectMany(x => x); }

Even though the other methods shown so far have been instance methods, `Flatten`

has to be an extension method, since the source is a nested `Identity<Identity<T>>`

. There's no class of that specific type - only `Identity<T>`

.

If there's one useful aspect of the Identity monad, it may be that it reveals the concept of a nested functor in all its triviality:

Identity<Identity<string>> nested = new Identity<Identity<string>>(new Identity<string>("bar")); Identity<string> flattened = nested.Flatten();

Recall: A monad is a functor you can flatten.

### Return #

Apart from monadic bind, a monad must also define a way to put a normal value into the monad. Conceptually, I call this function *return* (because that's the name that Haskell uses). You don't, however, have to define a static method called `Return`

. What's of importance is that the capability exists. For `Identity<T>`

in C# the idiomatic way would be to use a constructor. This constructor does double duty as monadic *return*:

public Identity(T item) { Item = item; }

In other words, *return* just wraps a value in the `Identity<T>`

container.

### Left identity #

We need to identify the *return* function in order to examine the monad laws. Let's see what they look like for the Identity monad, starting with the left identity law.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void IdentityHasLeftIdentity(Func<int, Identity<string>> h, int a) { Func<int, Identity<int>> @return = i => new Identity<int>(i); Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h), h(a)); }

This example is a bit different compared to the previous examples, since it uses FsCheck 2.11.0 and xUnit.net 2.4.0. FScheck can generate arbitrary functions in addition to arbitrary values, so I've simply asked it to generate some arbitrary `h`

functions.

### Right identity #

In a similar manner, we can showcase the right identity law as a test.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void IdentityHasRightIdentity(Func<string, Identity<int>> f, string a) { Func<int, Identity<int>> @return = i => new Identity<int>(i); Identity<int> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return), m); }

As always, even a property-based test constitutes no *proof* that the law holds. I show it only to illustrate what the laws look like in 'real' code.

### Associativity #

The last monad law is the associativity law that describes how (at least) three functions compose.

[Property(QuietOnSuccess = true)] public void IdentityIsAssociative( Func<int, Identity<string>> f, Func<string, Identity<byte>> g, Func<byte, Identity<TimeSpan>> h, int a) { Identity<string> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h), m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h))); }

This property once more relies on FsCheck's ability to generate arbitrary pure functions.

### F# #

While the `Identity`

monad is built into the Haskell standard library, there's no Identity monad in F#. While it can be occasionally useful in Haskell, Identity is as useless in F# as it is in C#. Again, that doesn't imply that you can't define it. You can:

type Identity<'a> = Identity of 'a module Identity = // Identity<'a> -> 'a let get (Identity x) = x // ('a -> 'b) -> Identity<'a> -> Identity<'b> let map f (Identity x) = Identity (f x) // ('a -> Identity<'b>) -> Identity<'a> -> Identity<'b> let bind f (Identity x) : Identity<_> = f x

Here I've repeated the functor implementation from the article about the Identity functor, but now also included the `bind`

function.

You can use such a module to support syntactic sugar in the form of computation expressions:

type IdentityBuilder() = member _.Bind(x, f) = Identity.bind f x member _.Return x = Identity x member _.ReturnFrom x = x let identity = IdentityBuilder ()

This enables you to write code like this:

let i = identity { let! x = Identity "corge" let! y = Identity 47 return y - x.Length }

Here, `i`

is a value of the type `Identity<int>`

.

### Conclusion #

If the Identity monad is useful in languages like C# and F#, I have yet to encounter a use case. Even so, it exists. It is also, perhaps, the most naked illustration of what a functor and monad is. As such, I think it may be helpful to study.

**Next:** The Lazy monad.

## An Either monad

*The Either sum type forms a monad. An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

The Either sum type is a useful data type that forms a functor. Actually, it forms two functors. Like many other useful functors, it also forms a monad. Again, more than one monad is possible. In this article I'll focus on the 'usual' monad instance where mapping takes place over the right side. If you swap left and right, however, you can also define a monad that maps over the left side. Try it; it's a good exercise.

*Either* is also known as *Result*, in which case *right* is usually called *success* or *OK*, while *left* is called *error* or *failure*.

In this article, I'll base the C# implementation on the code from Church-encoded Either.

### Join #

A monad must define either a *bind* or *join* function. As outlined in the introduction to monads, if you have one, you can use it to implement the other. For variety's sake, in this article series I do both. I also vary the names when there's no clear idiomatic naming convention. For this version of Either, I've chosen to start with a method called `Join`

:

public static IEither<L, R> Join<L, R>(this IEither<L, IEither<L, R>> source) { return source.Match( onLeft: l => new Left<L, R>(l), onRight: r => r); }

This method flattens a nested Either value. If the outer Either is a *left* case, the method returns a `new Left<L, R>(l)`

value, which fits the required return type. If the outer Either is a *right* case, it contains another, nested Either value that it can return.

As already described in the article Church-encoded Either, you can use Either values instead of exceptions. While that article already gives an example, the Either in that value isn't nested. This, however, can easily happen when you try to compose calculations that may fail. Another example may involve parsing. Here are two simple parsers:

public static IEither<string, DateTime> TryParseDate(string candidate) { if (DateTime.TryParse(candidate, out var d)) return new Right<string, DateTime>(d); else return new Left<string, DateTime>(candidate); } public static IEither<string, TimeSpan> TryParseDuration(string candidate) { if (TimeSpan.TryParse(candidate, out var ts)) return new Right<string, TimeSpan>(ts); else return new Left<string, TimeSpan>(candidate); }

These functions try to parse candidate values to more structured data types. If parsing fails, they return the candidate value so that calling code may get a chance to inspect and report the string that caused a failure. What happens if you try to compose these two functions?

IEither<string, DateTime> dt = TryParseDate("2022-03-21"); IEither<string, TimeSpan> ts = TryParseDuration("2"); IEither<string, IEither<string, DateTime>> nested = dt.Select(d => ts.Select(dur => d + dur));

Composing the results of these two functions produces a nested result that you can flatten with `Join`

:

IEither<string, DateTime> flattened = nested.Join();

Using `Join`

for that purpose is, however, often awkward, so a better option is to flatten as you go.

### SelectMany #

Monadic bind (in C# called `SelectMany`

) enables you to flatten as you go. As also shown in the monad introduction, if you already have `Join`

you can always implement `SelectMany`

like this:

public static IEither<L, R1> SelectMany<L, R, R1>( this IEither<L, R> source, Func<R, IEither<L, R1>> selector) { return source.Select(selector).Join(); }

The `SelectMany`

method makes the above composition a little easier:

IEither<string, DateTime> result = dt.SelectMany(d => ts.Select(dur => d + dur));

Instead of having to flatten a nested result, you can flatten as you go. I think that Scala's `flatMap`

is a better name for that operation than `SelectMany`

, but the behaviour is the same. If you're wondering why it's called `SelectMany`

, see my attempt at an explanation in the article about the list monad. The name makes modest sense in that context, but in the context of Either, that meaning is lost.

### Query syntax #

Perhaps you still find the above composition awkward. After all, you have to nest a `Select`

inside a `SelectMany`

. Is there a simpler way?

One option is to use query syntax, but in order to do that, you must (again as outlined in the monad introduction) add a special boilerplate `SelectMany`

overload:

public static IEither<L, R1> SelectMany<L, R, R1, U>( this IEither<L, R> source, Func<R, IEither<L, U>> k, Func<R, U, R1> s) { return source.SelectMany(x => k(x).Select(y => s(x, y))); }

This enables you to rewrite the above composition like this:

IEither<string, DateTime> result = from d in dt from dur in ts select d + dur;

It's often a question of subjectivity whether you like one alternative over the other, but the behaviour is the same.

### Return #

Apart from monadic bind, a monad must also define a way to put a normal value into the monad. Conceptually, I call this function *return* (because that's the name that Haskell uses). You don't, however, have to define a static method called `Return`

. What's of importance is that the capability exists. For `Either<L, R>`

in C# the idiomatic way would be to use a constructor. This constructor does double duty as monadic *return*:

public Right(R right)

In other words, *return* wraps a value in a *right* case.

Why not the *left* case? Because it wouldn't type-check. A *return* function should take a value of the type `R`

and return an `IEither<L, R>`

. The `Left`

constructor, however, doesn't take an `R`

value - it takes an `L`

value.

### Left identity #

We need to identify the *return* function in order to examine the monad laws. Let's see what they look like for the Either monad, starting with the left identity law.

[Theory] [InlineData("2")] [InlineData("2.3:00")] [InlineData("4.5:30")] [InlineData("0:33:44")] [InlineData("foo")] public void LeftIdentityLaw(string a) { Func<string, IEither<string, string>> @return = s => new Right<string, string>(s); Func<string, IEither<string, TimeSpan>> h = TryParseDuration; Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h), h(a)); }

As always, even a parametrised test constitutes no *proof* that the law holds. I show the tests to illustrate what the laws look like in 'real' code.

### Right identity #

In a similar manner, we can showcase the right identity law as a test.

[Theory] [InlineData("2022-03-22")] [InlineData("2022-03-21T16:57")] [InlineData("bar")] public void RightIdentityLaw(string a) { Func<string, IEither<string, DateTime>> f = TryParseDate; Func<DateTime, IEither<string, DateTime>> @return = d => new Right<string, DateTime>(d); IEither<string, DateTime> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return), m); }

The parameters supplied as `a`

will cause `m`

to be both `Left`

and `Right`

values, but the test demonstrates that the law holds in both cases.

### Associativity #

The last monad law is the associativity law that describes how (at least) three functions compose. We're going to need three functions. I'm going to reuse `TryParseDuration`

and add two new Either-valued functions:

public static IEither<string, double> DaysForward(TimeSpan ts) { if (ts < TimeSpan.Zero) return new Left<string, double>($"Negative durations not allowed: {ts}."); return new Right<string, double>(ts.TotalDays); } public static IEither<string, int> Nat(double d) { if (d % 1 != 0) return new Left<string, int>($"Non-integers not allowed: {d}."); if (d < 1) return new Left<string, int>($"Non-positive numbers not allowed: {d}."); return new Right<string, int>((int)d); }

These silly functions are only here for purposes of demonstration. Don't try to infer any deep meaning from them.

Designating them `f`

, `g`

, and `h`

, we can use them to express the monad associativity law:

[Theory] [InlineData("2")] [InlineData("-2.3:00")] [InlineData("4.5:30")] [InlineData("0:33:44")] [InlineData("0")] [InlineData("foo")] public void AssociativityLaw(string a) { Func<string, IEither<string, TimeSpan>> f = TryParseDuration; Func<TimeSpan, IEither<string, double>> g = DaysForward; Func<double, IEither<string, int>> h = Nat; var m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h), m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h))); }

The test cases supplied via the `[InlineData]`

attributes comprise a set of values that make their way through the composition to varying degrees. `"2"`

makes it all the way through to a `Right`

value, because it encodes a two-day duration. It's both a positive value, greater than zero, and an integer. The other test cases become `Left`

values at various stages in the composition, being either a non-number, fractional, zero, or negative.

### Conclusion #

Either (AKA Result) is another useful data structure that forms a monad. You can use it instead of throwing exceptions. Its monadic nature enables you to compose multiple Either-valued functions in a sane and elegant way.

**Next:** The Identity monad.

## At the boundaries, applications aren't functional

*Ten years later.*

In 2011 I published an article titled At the Boundaries, Applications are Not Object-Oriented. It made the observation that at the edges of systems, where software interacts with either humans or other software, interactions aren't object-oriented. The data exchanged is exactly that: data.

A common catchphrase about object-oriented design is that *objects are data with behaviour*. In a user interface, a REST API, at the command line, etcetera, data is transmitted, but behaviour is not.

The article was one of those unfortunately unsatisfying articles that point out a problem without offering a solution. While I don't like to leave readers hanging like that, I on the other hand think that it's important sometimes to ask open-ended questions. *Here's a problem. Can anyone offer a solution?*

People occasionally come by that old article and ask me if I've changed my mind since then. The short answer is that I believe that the problem persists. I may, however, today have another approach to it.

### Functional programming #

Starting around the time of the original article, I became interested in functional programming (FP). The more I've learned about it, the better it seems to address my concerns of eleven years ago.

I don't know if FP is a silver bullet (although I'd like to think so), but at least I find that I have fewer impedance mismatch issues than I did with object-oriented programming (OOP). In FP, after all, data is just data.

Except when it isn't, but more about that later.

It's easier to reconcile the FP notion of data with what actually goes on at the boundaries of a system.

Perhaps I should clarify what I mean by the word *boundary*. This is where a software system interacts with the rest of the world. This is where it receives HTTP requests and answers with HTTP responses. This is where it queries its database. This is where it sends emails. This is where it reads files from disk. This is where it repaints user interfaces. In short, the outermost circle in ports and adapters architecture.

Notice that what crosses the boundary tends to be data. JSON or XML documents, tabular data streams, flat files, etcetera. In OOP, your training tells you that you should associate some *behaviour* with data, and that's what creates dissonance. We introduce Data Transfer Objects (DTO) even though a DTO

"is one of those objects our mothers told us never to write."

We almost have to do violence to ourselves to introduce a DTO in an object-oriented code base, yet grudgingly we accept that this is probably better than the alternative.

In FP, on the other hand, that's just natural.

To paraphrase the simple example from the old article, imagine that you receive data like this as input:

{ "firstName": "Mark", "lastName": "Seemann" }

If we wanted to capture that structure as a type, in F# you'd write a type like this:

`type Name = { FirstName : string; LastName : string }`

And while you might feel icky defining such a DTO-like type in OOP, it's perfectly natural and expected in FP.

That type even supports JSON serialization and deserialization without further ceremony:

let opts = JsonSerializerOptions (PropertyNamingPolicy = JsonNamingPolicy.CamelCase) let n = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<Name> (json, opts)

where `json`

might contain the above JSON fragment.

To summarise so far: *Data crosses the boundaries of systems - not objects*. Since FP tends to separate data from behaviour, that paradigm feels more natural in that context.

### Not all peaches and cream #

FP is, however, not a perfect fit either. Let's paraphrase the above medial summary: *Data crosses the boundaries of systems - not functions*.

FP is more than just functions *and* data. It's also about functions as first-class concepts, including functions as values, and higher-order functions. While an object is *data with behaviour*, closures *are behaviour with data*. Such first-class values cross system boundaries with the same ease as objects do: Not very well.

I was recently helping a client defining a domain-specific language (DSL). I wrote a proof of concept in Haskell based on Abstract Syntax Trees (AST). Each AST would typically be defined with copious use of lambda expressions. There was also an existential type involved.

At one time, the question of persistence came up. At first I thought that you could easily serialize those ASTs, since, after all, they're just immutable values. Then I realised that while that's true, most of the constituent values were *functions*. There's no clear way to serialize a function, other than in code.

Functions don't easily cross boundaries, for the same reasons that objects don't.

So while FP seems like a better fit when it comes to modelling data, *at the boundaries, applications aren't functional*.

### Weak or strong typing? #

In my original article, I attempted to look ahead. One option I considered was dynamic typing. Instead of defining a DTO that mirrors a particular shape of data (e.g. a JSON document), would it be easier to parse or create a document on the fly, without a static type?

I occasionally find myself doing that, as you can see in my article To ID or not to ID. The code base already used Json.NET, and I found it easier to use the `JToken`

API to parse documents, rather than having to maintain a static type whose only raison d'être was to mirror a JSON document. I repeat an example here for your convenience:

// JToken -> UserData<string> let private parseUser (jobj : JToken) = let uid = jobj.["id"] |> string let fn = jobj.["firstName"] |> Option.ofObj |> Option.map string let ln = jobj.["lastName"] |> Option.ofObj |> Option.map string let email = jobj.["primaryEmail"] |> Option.ofObj |> Option.map (string >> MailAddress) { Id = uid FirstName = fn LastName = ln Email = email Identities = [] Permissions = [] }

Likewise, I also used `JObject`

to create and serialize new JSON documents. The *To ID or not to ID* article also contains an example of that.

F# types are typically one-liners, like that above `Name`

example. If that's true, why do I shy away from defining a static type that mirrors the desired JSON document structure?

Because typing (the other kind of typing) isn't a programming bottleneck. The cost of another type isn't the time it takes to write the code. It's the maintenance burden it adds.

One problem you'll commonly have when you define DTOs as static types is that the code base will contain more than one type that represents the same concept. If these types are too similar, it becomes difficult for programmers to distinguish between them. As a result, functionality may inadvertently be coupled to the wrong type.

Still, there can be good reasons to introduce a DTO type and a domain model. As Alexis King writes,

"Consider: what is a parser? Really, a parser is just a function that consumes less-structured input and produces more-structured output."

This is the approach I took in Code That Fits in Your Head. A `ReservationDto`

class has almost no invariants. It's just a bag of mutable and nullable properties; it's less-structured data.

The corresponding domain model `Reservation`

is more-structured. It's an immutable Value Object that guarantees various invariants: All required data is present, quantity is a natural number, you can't mutate the object, and it has structural equality.

In that case, `ReservationDto`

and `Reservation`

are sufficiently different. I consider their separate roles in the code base clear and distinct.

### Conclusion #

In 2011 I observed that at the boundaries, applications aren't object-oriented. For years, I've thought it a natural corollary that likewise, *at the boundaries, applications aren't functional*, either. On the other hand, I don't think I've explicitly made that statement before.

A decade after 2011, I still find object-oriented programming incongruent with how software must work in reality. Functional programming offers an alternative that, while also not perfectly aligned with all data, seems better aligned with the needs of working software.

## The Maybe monad

*The Maybe sum type forms a monad. An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

The Maybe sum type is a useful data type that forms a functor. Like many other useful functors, it also forms a monad.

It can be useful when querying another data structure (like a list or a tree) for a value that may or may not be present. It's also useful when performing a calculation that may not be possible, such as taking the square root of of a number, or calculating the average of a collection of values. A third common use case is when parsing a value, although usually, the Either sum type is often a better option for that task.

### Bind #

A monad must define either a *bind* or *join* function. In C#, monadic bind is called `SelectMany`

. Depending on how you've implemented `Maybe<T>`

the details of the implementation may vary, but the observable behaviour must always be the same. In this article I'm going to continue to use the `Maybe<T>`

class first shown in the article about the Maybe functor. (That's not really my favourite implementation, but it doesn't matter.)

In that code base, I chose to implement `SelectMany`

as an extension method. Why I didn't use an instance method I no longer remember. Again, this doesn't matter.

public static Maybe<TResult> SelectMany<T, TResult>( this Maybe<T> source, Func<T, Maybe<TResult>> selector) { if (source.HasItem) return selector(source.Item); else return new Maybe<TResult>(); }

If the `source`

has an item, `SelectMany`

calls `selector`

with the value and returns the result. If not, the result is an empty `Maybe<TResult>`

.

Monadic bind becomes useful when you have more than one function that returns a monadic value. Consider, for example, this variation of `Average`

:

public static Maybe<double> Average(IEnumerable<double> values) { if (values.Any()) return new Maybe<double>(values.Average()); else return new Maybe<double>(); }

You can't calculate the average of an empty collection, so if `values`

is empty, this function returns an empty `Maybe<double>`

.

If you only needed this `Average`

function, then you could use Maybe's functor affordance to map the result. On the other hand, imagine that you'd like to pass the `Average`

result to this `Sqrt`

function:

public static Maybe<double> Sqrt(double d) { var result = Math.Sqrt(d); switch (result) { case double.NaN: case double.PositiveInfinity: return new Maybe<double>(); default: return new Maybe<double>(result); } }

This is another calculation that may not be possible. If you try to compose `Average`

and `Sqrt`

with `Select`

(the functor's *map* function), you'd get a `Maybe<Maybe<double>>`

. Fortunately, however, monads are functors you can flatten:

[Theory] [InlineData(new double[0], -100)] [InlineData(new double[] { 5, 3 }, 2)] [InlineData(new double[] { 1, -2 }, -100)] public void ComposeAverageAndSqrt(double[] values, double expected) { Maybe<double> actual = Average(values).SelectMany(Sqrt); Assert.Equal(expected, actual.GetValueOrFallback(-100)); }

The `SelectMany`

method flattens as it goes. Viewed in this way, Scala's `flatMap`

seems like a more appropriate name.

The above test demonstrates how `SelectMany`

returns a flattened `Maybe<double>`

. The first test case has zero elements, so the `Average`

method is going to return an empty `Maybe<double>`

. `SelectMany`

handles that gracefully by returning another empty value.

In the second test case `Average`

returns a populated value that contains the number `4`

. `SelectMany`

passes `4`

to `Sqrt`

, which returns `2`

wrapped in a `Maybe<double>`

.

In the third test case, the average is `-.5`

, wrapped in a `Maybe<double>`

. `SelectMany`

passes `-.5`

on to `Sqrt`

, which returns an empty value.

### Query syntax #

Monads also enable query syntax in C# (just like they enable other kinds of syntactic sugar in languages like F# and Haskell). As outlined in the monad introduction, however, you must add a special `SelectMany`

overload:

public static Maybe<TResult> SelectMany<T, U, TResult>( this Maybe<T> source, Func<T, Maybe<U>> k, Func<T, U, TResult> s) { return source.SelectMany(x => k(x).Select(y => s(x, y))); }

As I also mentioned in the monad introduction, it seems to me that you can always implement this overload with the above expression. Once this overload is in place, you can rewrite the above composition in query syntax, if that's more to your liking:

[Theory] [InlineData(new double[0], -100)] [InlineData(new double[] { 5, 3 }, 2)] [InlineData(new double[] { 1, -2 }, -100)] public void ComposeAverageAndSqrtWithQuerySyntax(double[] values, double expected) { Maybe<double> actual = from a in Average(values) from s in Sqrt(a) select s; Assert.Equal(expected, actual.GetValueOrFallback(-100)); }

In this case, query syntax is more verbose, but the behaviour is the same. It's just two different ways of writing the same expression. The C# compiler desugars the query-syntax expression to one that composes with `SelectMany`

.

### Join #

In the introduction you learned that if you have a `Flatten`

or `Join`

function, you can implement `SelectMany`

, and the other way around. Since we've already defined `SelectMany`

for `Maybe<T>`

, we can use that to implement `Join`

. In this article I use the name `Join`

rather than `Flatten`

. This is an arbitrary choice that doesn't impact behaviour. Perhaps you find it confusing that I'm inconsistent, but I do it in order to demonstrate that the behaviour is the same even if the name is different.

The concept of a monad is universal, but the names used to describe its components differ from language to language. What C# calls `SelectMany`

, Scala calls `flatMap`

, and what Haskell calls `join`

, other languages may call `Flatten`

.

You can always implement `Join`

by using `SelectMany`

with the identity function.

public static Maybe<T> Join<T>(this Maybe<Maybe<T>> source) { return source.SelectMany(x => x); }

Instead of flattening as you go with `SelectMany`

, you could also use `Select`

and `Join`

to compose `Average`

and `Sqrt`

:

[Theory] [InlineData(new double[0], -100)] [InlineData(new double[] { 5, 3 }, 2)] [InlineData(new double[] { 1, -2 }, -100)] public void JoinAverageAndSqrt(double[] values, double expected) { Maybe<double> actual = Average(values).Select(Sqrt).Join(); Assert.Equal(expected, actual.GetValueOrFallback(-100)); }

You'd typically not write the composition like this, as it seems more convenient to use `SelectMany`

, but you could. The behaviour is the same.

### Return #

Apart from monadic bind, a monad must also define a way to put a normal value into the monad. Conceptually, I call this function *return* (because that's the name that Haskell uses). You don't, however, have to define a static method called `Return`

. What's of importance is that the capability exists. For `Maybe<T>`

in C# the idiomatic way would be to use a constructor. This constructor overload does double duty as monadic *return*:

public Maybe(T item) { if (item == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(item)); this.HasItem = true; this.Item = item; }

Why is it that overload, and not the other one? Because if you try to use `new Maybe<T>()`

as *return*, you'll find that it breaks the monad laws. Try it. It's a good exercise.

### Left identity #

Now that we're on the topic of the monad laws, let's see what they look like for the Maybe monad, starting with the left identity law.

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(1)] [InlineData(2)] public void LeftIdentity(int a) { Func<int, Maybe<int>> @return = i => new Maybe<int>(i); Func<int, Maybe<double>> h = i => i != 0 ? new Maybe<double>(1.0 / i) : new Maybe<double>(); Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h), h(a)); }

To provide some variety, `h`

is another Maybe-valued function - this time one that performs a safe multiplicative inverse. If `i`

is zero, it returns an empty `Maybe<double>`

because you can't devide by zero; otherwise, it returns one divided by `i`

(wrapped in a `Maybe<double>`

).

### Right identity #

In a similar manner, we can showcase the right identity law as a test.

[Theory] [InlineData("")] [InlineData("foo")] [InlineData("42")] [InlineData("1337")] public void RightIdentity(string a) { Maybe<int> f(string s) { if (int.TryParse(s, out var i)) return new Maybe<int>(i); else return new Maybe<int>(); } Func<int, Maybe<int>> @return = i => new Maybe<int>(i); Maybe<int> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return), m); }

Again, for variety's sake, for `f`

I've chosen a function that should probably be named `TryParseInt`

if used in another context.

### Associativity #

The last monad law is the associativity law that we can demonstrate like this:

[Theory] [InlineData("bar")] [InlineData("-1")] [InlineData("0")] [InlineData("4")] public void Associativity(string a) { Maybe<int> f(string s) { if (int.TryParse(s, out var i)) return new Maybe<int>(i); else return new Maybe<int>(); } Func<int, Maybe<double>> g = i => Sqrt(i); Func<double, Maybe<double>> h = d => d == 0 ? new Maybe<double>() : new Maybe<double>(1 / d); var m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h), m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h))); }

Here, I've copy-and-pasted the *TryParseInt* function I also used in the right identity example, and combined it with the `Sqrt`

function and a safe multiplicative inverse. The law, however, should hold for all pure functions that type-check. The functions shown here are just examples.

As usual, a parametrised test is no proof that the law holds. I provide the tests only as examples of what the laws looks like.

### Conclusion #

The Maybe sum type is a versatile and useful data structure that forms a monad. This enables you to compose disparate functions that each may err by failing to return a value.

**Next: ** An Either monad.

## The List monad

*Lists, collections, deterministic Iterators form a monad. An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

In the article series about functors I never included an explicit article about collections. Instead, I wrote:

"Perhaps the most well-known of all functors is List, a.k.a. Sequence. C# query syntax can handle any functor, but most people only think of it as a language feature related to

`IEnumerable<T>`

. Since the combination of`IEnumerable<T>`

and query syntax is already well-described, I'm not going to cover it explicitly here."

Like many other useful functors, a list also forms a monad. In this article, I call it *list*. In Haskell the most readily available equivalent is the built-in linked list (`[]`

). Likewise, in F#, the fundamental collection types are linked lists and arrays. In C#, any `IEnumerable<T>`

forms a monad. The .NET `IEnumerable<T>`

interface is an application of the Iterator design pattern. There are many possible names for this monad: *list*, *sequence*, *collection*, *iterator*, etcetera. I've arbitrarily chosen to mostly use *list*.

### SelectMany #

In the introduction to monads you learned that monads are characterised by having either a *join* (or *flatten*) function, or a *bind* function. While in Haskell, monadic bind is the `>>=`

operator, in C# it's a method called `SelectMany`

. Perhaps you wonder about the name.

The name `SelectMany`

makes most sense in the context of lists. An example would be useful around here.

Imagine that you have to parse a CSV file. You've already read the file from disc and split the contents into lines. Now you need to split each line on commas.

> var lines = new[] { "foo,bar,baz", "qux,quux,quuz" }; > lines.Select(l => l.Split(',')).ToArray() string[2][] { string[3] { "foo", "bar", "baz" }, string[3] { "qux", "quux", "quuz" } }

When you use `Select`

the result is a nested list. You've already learned that a monad is a functor you can flatten. In C#, you can 'flatten as you go' with `SelectMany`

.

The above scenario offers a hint at why the method is named `SelectMany`

. You use it instead of `Select`

when the selector returns *many* values. In the above example, the `Split`

method returns many values.

So, instead of `Select`

, use `SelectMany`

if you need a flattened list:

> lines.SelectMany(l => l.Split(',')).ToArray() string[6] { "foo", "bar", "baz", "qux", "quux", "quuz" }

I've never had the opportunity to ask any of the LINQ designers about that naming choice, but this explanation makes sense to me. Even if it turns out that they had something else in mind when they named the method, I think that my explanation at least serves as a mnemonic device.

The name is still unfortunate, since it mostly makes sense for the list monad. Already when you use `SelectMany`

with the Maybe monad, the name makes less sense.

### Flatten #

In the introduction you learned that if you have a `Flatten`

or `Join`

function, you can implement `SelectMany`

, and the other way around. In C#, LINQ already comes with `SelectMany`

, but surprisingly, `Flatten`

isn't built in.

You can always implement `Flatten`

by using `SelectMany`

with the identity function.

public static IEnumerable<T> Flatten<T>(this IEnumerable<IEnumerable<T>> source) { return source.SelectMany(x => x); }

Recall that the `selector`

passed to `SelectMany`

must have the type `Func<TSource, IEnumerable<TResult>>`

. There's no rule, however, that says that `TSource`

can't be `IEnumerable<TResult>`

. If `x`

in `x => x`

has the type `IEnumerable<TResult>`

, then `x => x`

has the type `Func<IEnumerable<TResult>, IEnumerable<TResult>>`

and it all type-checks.

Here's a test that demonstrates how `Flatten`

works:

[Fact] public void FlattenExample() { string[][] nested = new[] { new[] { "foo", "bar" }, new[] { "baz" } }; IEnumerable<string> flattened = nested.Flatten(); Assert.Equal(new[] { "foo", "bar", "baz" }, flattened); }

In Haskell `Flatten`

is called `join`

and is implemented this way:

join :: (Monad m) => m (m a) -> m a join x = x >>= id

It's the same implementation as the above C# method: monadic bind (`SelectMany`

in C#; `>>=`

in Haskell) with the identity function. The Haskell implementation works for all monads.

### Return #

Apart from monadic bind, a monad must also define a way to put a normal value into the monad. For the list monad, this implies a single value promoted to a list. Surprisingly, the .NET base class library doesn't come with such a built-in function, but you can easily implement it yourself:

public static IEnumerable<T> Return<T>(T x) { yield return x; }

In practice, however, you'd normally instead create a singleton array, like this: `new[] { 2112 }`

. Since arrays implement `IEnumerable<T>`

, this works just as well.

Why is this the correct implementation of *return?*

Wouldn't this work?

public static IEnumerable<T> ReturnZero<T>(T x) { yield break; }

Or this?

public static IEnumerable<T> ReturnTwo<T>(T x) { yield return x; yield return x; }

None of these are appropriate because they break the monad laws. Try it, as an exercise!

### Left identity #

Now that we're on the topic of the monad laws, let's see what they look like for the list monad, starting with the left identity law.

[Theory] [InlineData("")] [InlineData("foo")] [InlineData("foo,bar")] [InlineData("foo,bar,baz")] public void LeftIdentity(string a) { Func<string, IEnumerable<string>> @return = List.Return; Func<string, IEnumerable<string>> h = s => s.Split(','); Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h), h(a)); }

As usual, a parametrised test is no proof that the law holds. I provide it only as an example of what the law looks like.

### Right identity #

Likewise, we can showcase the right identity law as a test:

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(1)] [InlineData(9)] public void RightIdentity(int a) { Func<int, IEnumerable<string>> f = i => Enumerable.Repeat("foo", i); Func<string, IEnumerable<string>> @return = List.Return; IEnumerable<string> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return), m); }

These tests all pass.

### Associativity #

The last monad law is the associativity law that we can demonstrate like this:

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(3)] [InlineData(8)] public void Associativity(int a) { Func<int, IEnumerable<string>> f = i => Enumerable.Repeat("foo", i); Func<string, IEnumerable<char>> g = s => s; Func<char, IEnumerable<string>> h = c => new[] { c.ToString().ToUpper(), c.ToString().ToLower() }; IEnumerable<string> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h), m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h))); }

The three functions `f`

, `g`

, and `h`

are just silly functions I chose for variety's sake.

### Conclusion #

Lists, arrays, collections, Iterators are various names for a common idea: that of an ordered sequence of values. In this article, I've called it *list* for simplicity's sake. It's possible to flatten nested lists in a well-behaved manner, which makes *list* a monad.

**Next:** The Maybe monad.

## Monad laws

*An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

Just as functors must obey the functor laws, monads must follow the monad laws. When looked at from the right angle, these are intuitive and reasonable rules: identity and associativity.

That sounds almost like a monoid, but the rules are more relaxed. For monoids, we require a binary operation. That's not the case for functors and monads. Instead of binary operations, for monads we're going to use Kleisli composition.

This article draws heavily on the Haskell wiki on monad laws.

In short, the monad laws comprise three rules:

- Left identity
- Right identity
- Associativity

The article describes each in turn, starting with left identity.

### Left identity #

A left identity is an element that, when applied to the left of an operator, doesn't change the other element. When used with the fish operator it looks like this:

id >=> h ≡ h

For monads, `id`

turns out to be `return`

, so more specifically:

return >=> h ≡ h

In C# we can illustrate the law as a parametrised test:

[Theory] [InlineData(-1)] [InlineData(42)] [InlineData(87)] public void LeftIdentityKleisli(int a) { Func<int, Monad<int>> @return = Monad.Return; Func<int, Monad<string>> h = i => Monad.Return(i.ToString()); Func<int, Monad<string>> composed = @return.Compose(h); Assert.Equal(composed(a), h(a)); }

Recall that we can implement the fish operators as `Compose`

overloads. The above test demonstrates the notion that `@return`

composed with `h`

should be indistinguishable from `h`

. Such a test should pass.

Keep in mind, however, that Kleisli composition is *derived* from the definition of a monad. The direct definition of monads is that they come with a `return`

and `bind`

functions (or, alternatively `return`

and `join`

). If we inline the implementation of `Compose`

, the test instead looks like this:

[Theory] [InlineData(-1)] [InlineData(42)] [InlineData(87)] public void LeftIdentityInlined(int a) { Func<int, Monad<int>> @return = Monad.Return; Func<int, Monad<string>> h = i => Monad.Return(i.ToString()); Func<int, Monad<string>> composed = x => @return(x).SelectMany(h); Assert.Equal(composed(a), h(a)); }

or, more succinctly:

Assert.Equal(@return(a).SelectMany(h), h(a));

This is also the way the left identity law is usually presented in Haskell:

return a >>= h = h a

In Haskell, *monadic bind* is represented by the `>>=`

operator, while in C# it's the `SelectMany`

method. Thus, the Haskell and the C# representations are equivalent.

### Right identity #

Right identity starts out similar to left identity. Using the fish operator, the Haskell wiki describes it as:

f >=> return ≡ f

Translated to a C# test, an example of that law might look like this:

[Theory] [InlineData("foo")] [InlineData("ploeh")] [InlineData("lawful")] public void RightIdentityKleisli(string a) { Func<string, Monad<int>> f = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<int, Monad<int>> @return = Monad.Return; Func<string, Monad<int>> composed = f.Compose(@return); Assert.Equal(composed(a), f(a)); }

Again, if we inline `Compose`

, the test instead looks like this:

[Theory] [InlineData("foo")] [InlineData("ploeh")] [InlineData("lawful")] public void RightIdentityInlined(string a) { Func<string, Monad<int>> f = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<int, Monad<int>> @return = Monad.Return; Func<string, Monad<int>> composed = x => f(x).SelectMany(@return); Assert.Equal(composed(a), f(a)); }

Now explicitly call the `f`

function and assign it to a variable `m`

:

[Theory] [InlineData("foo")] [InlineData("ploeh")] [InlineData("lawful")] public void RightIdentityInlinedIntoAssertion(string a) { Func<string, Monad<int>> f = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<int, Monad<int>> @return = Monad.Return; Monad<int> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(@return), m); }

The assertion is now the C# version of the normal Haskell definition of the right identity law:

m >>= return = m

In other words, `return`

is the identity element for monadic composition. It doesn't really 'do' anything in itself.

### Associativity #

The third monad law is the associativity law. Keep in mind that an operator like `+`

is associative if it's true that

(x + y) + z = x + (y + z)

Instead of `+`

, the operator in question is the fish operator, and since values are functions, we typically call them `f`

, `g`

, and `h`

rather than `x`

, `y`

, and `z`

:

(f >=> g) >=> h ≡ f >=> (g >=> h)

Translated to a C# test as an example, the law looks like this:

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(1)] [InlineData(2)] public void AssociativityKleisli(double a) { Func<double, Monad<bool>> f = i => Monad.Return(i % 2 == 0); Func<bool, Monad<string>> g = b => Monad.Return(b.ToString()); Func<string, Monad<int>> h = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<double, Monad<int>> left = (f.Compose(g)).Compose(h); Func<double, Monad<int>> right = f.Compose(g.Compose(h)); Assert.Equal(left(a), right(a)); }

The outer brackets around `(f.Compose(g))`

are actually redundant; we should remove them. Also, inline `Compose`

:

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(1)] [InlineData(2)] public void AssociativityInlined(double a) { Func<double, Monad<bool>> f = i => Monad.Return(i % 2 == 0); Func<bool, Monad<string>> g = b => Monad.Return(b.ToString()); Func<string, Monad<int>> h = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<double, Monad<string>> fg = x => f(x).SelectMany(g); Func<double, Monad<int>> left = x => fg(x).SelectMany(h); Func<bool, Monad<int>> gh = x => g(x).SelectMany(h); Func<double, Monad<int>> right = x => f(x).SelectMany(gh); Assert.Equal(left(a), right(a)); }

If there's a way in C# to inline the local compositions `fg`

and `gh`

directly into `left`

and `right`

, respectively, I don't know how. In any case, the above is just an intermediate step.

For both `left`

and `right`

, notice that the first step involves invoking `f`

with `x`

. If, instead, we call that value `m`

, we can rewrite the test like this:

[Theory] [InlineData(0)] [InlineData(1)] [InlineData(2)] public void AssociativityInlinedIntoAssertion(double a) { Func<double, Monad<bool>> f = i => Monad.Return(i % 2 == 0); Func<bool, Monad<string>> g = b => Monad.Return(b.ToString()); Func<string, Monad<int>> h = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Monad<bool> m = f(a); Assert.Equal(m.SelectMany(g).SelectMany(h), m.SelectMany(x => g(x).SelectMany(h))); }

The above assertion corresponds to the way the associativity law is usually represented in Haskell:

(m >>= g) >>= h = m >>= (\x -> g x >>= h)

Once more, keep in mind that `>>=`

in Haskell corresponds to `SelectMany`

in C#.

### Conclusion #

A proper monad must satisfy the three monad laws: left identity, right identity, and associativity. Together, left identity and right identity are know as simply *identity*. What's so special about identity and associativity?

As Bartosz Milewski explains, a *category* must satisfy associativity and identity. When it comes to monads, the category in question is the Kleisli category. Or, as the Haskell wiki puts it:

Monad axioms:

Kleisli composition forms

a category.

Subsequent articles in this article series will now proceed to give examples of concrete monads, and what the laws look like for each of these.

**Next:** The List monad.

## Comments

That sounds almost like a monoid, but the rules are more relaxed. For monoids, we require a binary operation. That's not the case for functors and monads. Instead of binary operations, for monads we're going to use Kleisli composition.

I am confused by this paragraph. A monoid requries a binary operation (that is also closed), and Kleisli composition is (closed) binary operation.

As you said in the introductory article to this monad series, there are three pieces to a monad: a generic type `M<>`

, a function with type `a -> M<a>`

(typically called "return"), and a function with signature `(a -> M<b>) -> M<a> -> M<b>`

(sometimes called "bind"). Then `(M<>, return, bind)`

is a monad if those three items satisfy the monad laws.

I think the following is true. Let `M<>`

be a generic type, and let `S`

be the set of all functions with signature `a -> M<a>`

. Then `(M<>, return, bind)`

is a monad if only only if `(S, >=>, return)`

is a monoid.

Tyson, thank you for writing. To address the elephant in the room first: A monad *is* a monoid (in the category of endofunctors), but as far as I can tell, you have to look more abstractly at it than allowed by the static type systems we normally employ.

Bartosz Milewski describes a nested functor as the tensor product of two monadic types: `M ⊗ M`

. The binary operation in question is then `M ⊗ M -> M`

, or *join/flatten* (from here on just *join*). In this very abstract view, monads *are* monoids. It does require an abstract view of functors as objects in a category. At that level of abstraction, so many details are lost that *join* looks like a binary operation.

So, to be clear, if you want to look at a monad as a monoid, it's not the monadic *bind* function that's the binary operation; it's *join*. (That's another reason I prefer explaining monads in terms of *join* rather than leading with *bind*.)

When you zoom in on the details, however, join doesn't look like a regular binary operation: `m (m a) -> m a`

. A binary operation, on the other hand, should look like this: `m a -> m a -> m a`

.

The Kleisli composition operator unfortunately doesn't fix this. Let's look at the C# method signature, since it may offer a way out:

public static Func<T, Monad<T2>> Compose<T, T1, T2>( Func<T, Monad<T1>> action1, Func<T1, Monad<T2>> action2)

Notice that the types don't match: `action1`

has a type different from `action2`

, which is again different from the return type. Thus, it's not a binary operation, because the elements don't belong to the same set.

As Bartosz Milewski wrote, though, if we squint a little, we may make it work. C# allows us to 'squint' because of its object hierarchy:

public static Func<object, Monad<object>> Compose( Func<object, Monad<object>> action1, Func<object, Monad<object>> action2)

I'm not sure how helpful that is, though, so I didn't want to get into these weeds in the above article itself. It's fine here in the comments, because I expect only very dedicated readers to consult them. This, thus, serves more like a footnote or appendix.

Thanks very much for you reply. It helped me to see where I was wrong. `(S, >=>, return)`

is not a monoid because `>=>`

is not total over `S`

, which is another condition the binary operation must satisfy, but I overlooked that. Furthremore, I meant to define `S`

as the set of all functions with signature `a -> M<b>`

. The same problem still exists though. The second code block in your comment has this same problem. There is not a natural choice for the implementation unless the types of the objects satisfy the constraints implied by the use of type parameters in the first code block in your comment. I will keep thinking about this.

In the meantime, keep up the great work. I am loving your monad content.

## Kleisli composition

*A way to compose two monadic functions. An article for object-oriented programmers.*

This article is an instalment in an article series about monads.

There's a bit of groundwork which will be useful before we get to the monad laws. There are two ways to present the monad laws. One is quite unintuitive, but uses only the concepts already discussed in the introductory article. The other way to present the laws is much more intuitive, but builds on a derived concept: Kleisli composition.

I find it preferable to take the intuitive route, even if it requires this little detour around the Kleisli category.

### Monadic functions #

Imagine some monad - any monad. It could be *Maybe* (AKA *Option*), *Either* (AKA *Result*), *Task*, *State*, etcetera. In Haskell notation we denote it `m`

. (Don't worry if you don't know Haskell. The type notation is fairly intuitive, and I'll explain enough of it along the way.)

You may have a function that takes some input and returns a monadic value. Perhaps it's a parser that takes a string as input and returns a *Maybe* or *Either* as output:

String -> Maybe Int

Perhaps it's a database query that takes an ID as input and returns a *Task* or *IO* value:

UUID -> IO Reservation

Notice that in Haskell, you write the input to the left of the output. (This is also the case in F#.) Functions looks like arrows that point from the input to the output, which is a common depiction that I've also used before.

If we generalise this notation, we would write a monadic function like this:

a -> m b

`a`

is a generic type that denotes input. It could be `String`

or `UUID`

as shown above, or anything else. Likewise, `b`

is another generic type that could be `Int`

, `Reservation`

, or anything else. And `m`

, as already explained, may be any monad. The corresponding C# method signature would be:

Func<T, Monad<T1>>

In C#, it's idiomatic to name generic type arguments `T`

and `T1`

rather than `a`

and `b`

, but the idea is the same.

The previous article used `Functor<T>`

as a stand-in for any functor. Likewise, now that you know what a monad is, the type `Monad<T>`

is a similar pretend type. It symbolises 'any monad'.

### Kleisli composition #

In Functions as pipes you got a visual illustration of how functions compose. If you have a function that returns a Boolean value, you can use that Boolean value as input to a function that accepts Boolean values as input. Generalised, if one function returns `a`

and another function accepts `a`

as input, you can compose these two functions:

(a -> b) -> (b -> c) -> (a -> c)

A combinator of this type takes two functions as input: `a -> b`

(a function from `a`

to `b`

) and `(b -> c)`

, and returns a new function that 'hides' the middle step: `a -> c`

.

If this is possible, it seems intuitive that you can also compose monadic functions:

(>=>) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> (b -> m c) -> a -> m c

The >=> operator is known as the *fish* operator - or more precisely the *right fish* operator, since there's also a *left fish* operator <=<.

This is known as *Kleisli composition*. In C# you could write it like this:

public static Func<T, Monad<T2>> Compose<T, T1, T2>( this Func<T, Monad<T1>> action1, Func<T1, Monad<T2>> action2) { return x => action1(x).SelectMany(action2); }

Notice that Kleisli composition works for any monad. You don't need any new abilities in order to compose a monad in this way. The composition exclusively relies on `SelectMany`

(monadic *bind*).

Here's a usage example:

Func<string, Monad<int>> f = s => Monad.Return(s.Length); Func<int, Monad<bool>> g = i => Monad.Return(i % 2 == 0); Func<string, Monad<bool>> composed = f.Compose(g);

The `Compose`

method corresponds to the right fish operator, but obviously you could define an overload that flips the arguments. That would correspond to the left fish operator.

### Universality #

Kleisli composition seems compelling, but in reality I find that I rarely use it. If it isn't that useful, then why dedicate an entire article to it?

As I wrote in the introduction, it's mostly because it gives us an intuitive way to describe the monad laws.

Kleisli arrows form a category. As such, it's a universal abstraction. I admit that this article series has strayed away from its initial vision of discussing category theory, but I still find it assuring when I encounter some bedrock of theory behind a programming concept.

### Conclusion #

Kleisli composition lets you compose two (or more) compatible monadic functions into a single monadic function.

**Next:** Monad laws.

## Monads

*A monad is a common abstraction. While typically associated with Haskell, monads also exist in C# and other languages.*

This article series is part of a larger series of articles about functors, applicatives, and other mappable containers.

If you understand what a functor is, it should be easy to grasp the idea of a monad. *It's a functor you can flatten.*

There's a little more to it than that, and you also need to learn what I mean by *flatten*, but that's the essence of it.

In this article-series-within-an-article series, I'll explain this disproportionally dreaded concept, giving you plenty of examples as well as a more formal definition. Examples will be in both C#, F#, and Haskell, although I plan to emphasise C#. I expect that there's little need of explaining monads to people already familiar with Haskell. I'll show examples as separate articles in this series. These articles are mostly aimed at object-oriented programmers curious about monads.

- Kleisli composition
- Monad laws
- The List monad
- The Maybe monad
- An Either monad
- The Identity monad
- The Lazy monad
- Asynchronous monads
- The State monad
- The Reader monad
- The IO monad
- Test Data Generator monad

This list is far from exhaustive; more monads exist.

All monads are applicative functors, but not all applicative functors are monads. As the set diagram reiterates, applicative functors are functors, but again: not necessarily the other way around.

### Flattening #

A monad is a functor you can flatten. What do I mean by *flatten?*

As in the article that introduces functors, imagine that you have some `Functor<T>`

container. More concretely, this could be `IEnumerable<T>`

, `Maybe<T>`

, `Task<T>`

, etcetera.

When working with functors, you sometimes run into situations where the containers nest inside each other. Instead of a `Functor<decimal>`

, you may find yourself with a `Functor<Functor<decimal>>`

, or maybe even an object that's thrice or quadruply nested.

If you can flatten such nested functor objects to just `Functor<T>`

, then that functor also forms a monad.

In C#, you need a method with this kind of signature:

public static Functor<T> Flatten<T>(this Functor<Functor<T>> source)

Notice that this method takes a `Functor<Functor<T>>`

as input and returns a `Functor<T>`

as output. I'm not showing the actual implementation, since `Functor<T>`

is really just a 'pretend' functor (and monad). In the example articles that follow, you'll see actual implementation code.

With `Flatten`

you can write code like this:

Functor<decimal> dest = source.Flatten();

Here, `source`

is a `Functor<Functor<decimal>>`

.

This function also exists in Haskell, although there, it's called join:

join :: Monad m => m (m a) -> m a

For any `Monad m`

you can flatten or join a nested monad `m (m a)`

to a 'normal' monad `m a`

.

This is the same function as `Flatten`

, so in C# we could define an alias like this:

public static Functor<T> Join<T>(this Functor<Functor<T>> source) { return source.Flatten(); }

Usually, however, you don't see monads introduced via `join`

or `Flatten`

. It's a shame, really, because it's the most straightforward description.

### Bind #

Most languages that come with a notion of monads define them via a function colloquially referred to as *monadic bind* or just *bind*. In C# it's called `SelectMany`

, F# computation expressions call it `Bind`

, and Scala calls it `flatMap`

(with a vestige of the concept of flattening). Haskell just defines it as an operator:

(>>=) :: Monad m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b

When talking about it, I tend to call the `>>=`

operator *bind*.

Translated to C# it has this kind of signature:

public static Functor<TResult> SelectMany<T, TResult>( this Functor<T> source, Func<T, Functor<TResult>> selector)

It looks almost like a functor's `Select`

method (AKA `map`

or `fmap`

function). The difference is that this `selector`

returns a functor value (`Functor<TResult>`

) rather than a 'naked' `TResult`

value.

When a `Flatten`

(or `Join`

) method already exists, you can always implement `SelectMany`

like this:

public static Functor<TResult> SelectMany<T, TResult>( this Functor<T> source, Func<T, Functor<TResult>> selector) { Functor<Functor<TResult>> nest = source.Select(selector); return nest.Flatten(); }

I've split the implementation over two lines of code to make it clearer what's going on. That's also the reason I've used an explicit type declaration rather than `var`

.

The `Select`

method exists because the type is already a functor. When you call `Select`

with `selector`

you get a `Functor<Functor<TResult>>`

because `selector`

itself returns a `Functor<TResult>`

. That's a nested functor, which you can `Flatten`

.

You can use `SelectMany`

like this:

Functor<TimeSpan> source = Functor.Return(TimeSpan.FromMinutes(32)); Functor<double> dest = source.SelectMany(x => Functor.Return(x.TotalSeconds + 192));

The lambda expression returns a `Functor<double>`

. Had you called `Select`

with this lambda expression, the result would have been a nested functor. `SelectMany`

, however, flattens while it maps (it *flatMaps*). (This example is rather inane, since it would be simpler to use `Select`

and omit wrapping the output of the lambda in the functor. The later articles in this series will show some more compelling examples.)

If you already have `Flatten`

(or `Join`

) you can always implement `SelectMany`

like this. Usually, however, languages use monadic bind (e.g. `SelectMany`

) as the foundation. Both C#, Haskell, and F# do that. In that case, it's also possible to go the other way and implement `Flatten`

with `SelectMany`

. You'll see examples of that in the subsequent articles.

### Syntactic sugar #

Several languages understand monads well enough to provide some degree of syntactic sugar. While you can always use `SelectMany`

in C# by simply calling the method, there are situations where that becomes awkward. The same is true with `bind`

functions in F# and `>>=`

in Haskell.

In C# you can use *query syntax*:

Functor<DateTime> fdt = Functor.Return(new DateTime(2001, 8, 3)); Functor<TimeSpan> fts = Functor.Return(TimeSpan.FromDays(4)); Functor<DateTime> dest = from dt in fdt from ts in fts select dt - ts;

In order to support more than a single `from`

expression, however, you must supply a special `SelectMany`

overload, or the code doesn't compile:

public static Functor<TResult> SelectMany<T, U, TResult>( this Functor<T> source, Func<T, Functor<U>> k, Func<T, U, TResult> s) { return source.SelectMany(x => k(x).Select(y => s(x, y))); }

This is an odd quirk of C# that I've yet to encounter in other languages, and I consider it ceremony that I have to perform to satiate the C# compiler. It's not part of the concept of what a monad is. As far as I can tell, you can always implement it like shown here.

Haskell's syntactic sugar is called *do notation* and works for all monads:

example :: (Monad m, Num a) => m a -> m a -> m a example fdt fts = do dt <- fdt ts <- fts return $ dt - ts

In F#, computation expressions drive syntactic sugar, but still based (among other things) on the concept of a monad:

let example (fdt : Monad<DateTime>) (fts : Monad<TimeSpan>) = monad { let! dt = fdt let! ts = fts return dt - ts }

Here, we again have to pretend that a `Monad<'a>`

type exists, with a companion `monad`

computation expression.

### Return #

The ability to flatten nested functors is the essence of what a monad is. There are, however, also some formal requirements. As is the case with functors, there are laws that a monad should obey. I'll dedicate a separate article for those, so we'll skip them for now.

Another requirement is that in addition to `SelectMany`

/`bind`

/`flatMap`

/`>>=`

a monad must also provide a method to 'elevate' a value to the monad. This function is usually called *return*. It should have a type like this:

public static Functor<T> Return<T>(T x)

You can see it in use in the above code snippet, and with the relevant parts repeated here:

Functor<DateTime> fdt = Functor.Return(new DateTime(2001, 8, 3)); Functor<TimeSpan> fts = Functor.Return(TimeSpan.FromDays(4));

This code example lifts the value `DateTime(2001, 8, 3)`

to a `Functor<DateTime>`

value, and the value `TimeSpan.FromDays(4)`

to a `Functor<TimeSpan>`

value.

Usually, in a language like C# a concrete monad type may either afford a constructor or factory method for this purpose. You'll see examples in the articles that give specific monad examples.

### Conclusion #

A monad is a functor you can flatten. That's the simplest way I can put it.

In this article you learned what *flattening* means. You also learned that a monad must obey some laws and have a *return* function. The essence, however, is flattening. The laws just ensure that the flattening is well-behaved.

It may not yet be clear to you why some functors would need flattening in the first place, but subsequent articles will show examples.

The word *monad* has its own mystique in software development culture. If you've ever encountered some abstruse nomenclature about monads, then try to forget about it. The concept is really not hard to grasp, and it usually clicks once you've seen enough examples, and perhaps done some exercises.

**Next:** Kleisli composition.

## Comments

Quoting image in words:

- Every Monad is an applicative functor
- Every applicative functor is a functor
- Every functor is a generic type

As your aricle about Monomorphic functors shows, not every functor is a generic type. However, it is true that every applicative functor is a generic (or polymorphic) functor.

True, the illustration is a simplification.

I guess you might know that already but the reason for the strange `SelectMany`

ceremonial version is compiler performance. The complicated form is needed so that the overload resolution does not take exponential amount of time. See a 2013 article by Eric Lippert covering this.

Petr, thank you for writing. I remember reading about it before, but it's good to have a proper source.

If I understand the article correctly, the problem seems to originate from overload resolution. This would, at least, explain why neither F# nor Haskell needs that extra overload. I wonder if a language like Java would have a similar problem, but I don't think that Java has syntactic sugar for monads.

It still seems a little strange that the C# compiler *requires* the presence of that overload. Eric Lippert seems to strongly imply that it's always possible to derive that extra overload from any monad's fundamental functions (as is also my conjecture). If this is so, the C# compiler should be able to do that work by itself. Monads that wish to supply a more efficient implement (e.g. `IEnumerable<T>`

) could still do so: The C# compiler could look for the overload and use it if it finds it, and still fall back to the default implementation if none is available.

But I suppose that since the query syntax feature only really exists to support `IEnumerable<T>`

this degree of sophistication wasn't warranted.

## Comments

Why have you decided to make the date of the reservation relative to the SystemClock, and not the other way around? Would it be more deterministic to use a faked system clock instead?

Laszlo, thank you for asking. I wrote a new article to answer your question.